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Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.423 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
effect on fertility
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
75
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
31.74 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Regarding absorption, in the absence of reliable data for both the starting route (oral) and the end route (inhalation), worst case assumptions were made. It was assumed that a limited absorption occurs by the oral route, leading to a low (conservative) internal NOAEL. To secure a conservative external NOAEL, a maximum absorption should be assumed for the inhalation route (i.e.; 100%) leading to a low external NOAEL. Thus, in the case of oral-to-inhalation extrapolation, it is proposed to include a default factor of 2, i.e. the absorption percentage by oral route is half that of the inhalation absorption as suggested in ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012).


 


To convert the oral NOAEL into inhalatory NOAEC, a rat default respiratory volume was used corresponding to the daily duration of human exposure (sRVrat: 0.38 m3/kg bw/8 h). For workers a correction was added for the difference between respiratory rates under standard conditions (sRVhuman: 6.7 m3 for an 8-h exposure period) and under conditions of light activity (wRV: 10 m3 for an 8-h exposure period). Thus, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is [36 mg/kg bw/day] X  [1/0.38 m3/kg bw/day] X [1/2] X [6.7 m3/10m3]. Thus, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is 31.74 mg/m3 for workers.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
Default factor for a sub-acute study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance. Assessment factor not to be used for inhalation route since the differences in the metabolic rate/bw has already been taken into account in the corrected dose descriptor.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (respiratory tract)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.12 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No long-term dermal study available. According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8 route-to-route extrapolation is possible. The dermal absorption is not expected to be higher than oral absorption, therefore no AF for route-to-route Extrapolation is needed.
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
Default factor for a sub-acute study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default allometric scaling factor for rats. Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no DNEL required: short term exposure controlled by conditions for long-term
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.104 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
effect on fertility
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
150
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
15.65 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Regarding absorption, in the absence of reliable data for both the starting route (oral) and the end route (inhalation), worst case assumptions were made. It was assumed that a limited absorption occurs by the oral route, leading to a low (conservative) internal NOAEL. To secure a conservative external NOAEL, a maximum absorption should be assumed for the inhalation route (i.e.; 100%) leading to a low external NOAEL. Thus, in the case of oral-to- inhalation extrapolation, it is proposed to include a default factor of 2, i.e. the absorption percentage by oral route is half that of the inhalation absorption as suggested in ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012). To convert the oral NOAEL into inhalatory NOAEC, a rat default respiratory volume was used corresponding to the daily duration of human exposure (sRVrat: 1.15 m3/kg bw/24 h). Thus, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is [36 mg/kg bw/day] x [1/1.15 m3/kg bw/ day] x [1/2]. Thus, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is 15.65 mg/m3 for the general population.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance..
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
Default factor for a sub-acute. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance. Assessment factor not to be used for inhalation route since the differences in metabolic rate/bw has already been taken into account for the corrected dose descriptor.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.06 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No dermal repeated dose toxicity study available. According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8 route-to-route extrapolation is possible. The dermal absorption is not expected to be higher than oral absorption, therefore no AF for route-to-route Extrapolation is needed.
AF for dose response relationship:
1
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-3
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no DNEL required: short term exposure controlled by conditions for long-term
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.06 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
effect on fertility
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-3
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
According to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8: Table R.8-6
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.18 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
effect on fertility
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
DNEL extrapolated from long term DNEL
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
36
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The acute oral toxicity resulted into an LC50 of >300 - 2000 mg/kg bw  i.e. classified as Category 4 in accordance with UN GHS & CLP regulation,  according to the ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8, Appendix R 8.8 (Version 2.1, November 2012), although, peak exposures in theory may also occur for oral routes, usually this is not normally assessed, however, the substance is used in consumer product and as such acute oral toxicity hazard need to accessed.


 


Therefore, the DNEL for acute toxicity is derived in the same way as the DNEL for long-term toxicity in accordance with the principles given in ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012). NOAEL of 36 mg/kg bw/day for systemic effects established in a repeated (sub-chronic) dose toxicity study (OECD 414) in rats. The extrapolation of long to short term risk was set based on a reference period of 15 minutes at 1-5 times the value (default 3) of the long-term Oral DNEL . i.e. 0.06 mg/kg bw/day * 3.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default allometric scaling factor for rats. Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default factor for general population. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
6
Justification:
Default factor for a sub-acute study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - General Population

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