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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: inherent biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Code number: FAT 92368/A
EN/Batch: PLN 13
Purity: ca. 80 %
Appearance: solid
Solubility: miscible
Storage: room temperature
Expiration date: 03/98
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
Sludge of a biological sewage treatment plant (ARA-Therwil) collected on 24 August 1993
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
150 mg/L
Based on:
DOC
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
DOC removal
Details on study design:
Water / Nutrient: according to the specification of the EEC L133 (pp. 99-105) Volume 31 resp. OECD Method 302B.
Temperature: 22.0 ± 3°C (room temperature)

Reference substance:
diethylene glycol
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
0.3
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Average of 2 tests running in parallel
Details on results:
Adsorption after 3 hours: 13.0 %
Results with reference substance:
Reference substance: The bioelimination, corrected by the blank control and measured as DOC (mg/l) was 98.3 % on the 16th day.

 

Reference

Substance

 

Day

 

Date

Mean Value of the Reference DOC (mg/L)

 Value of the Blank DOC (mg/L)

 

Elimination %

Mean Value of the Substance DOC (mg/L)

 Value of the Blank DOC (mg/L)

 

Elimination %

-1  day

24.08.93

149.4

-

-

151.8

-

-

0

25.08.93

156.7

9.6

1.5

148.2

9.6

8.7

3  h

25.08.93

153.9

9.2

3.1

141.2

9.2

13.0

2.  day

27.08.93

155.7

9.8

2.3

142.3

9.8

12.7

5.  day

30.08.93

154.9

11.3

3.9

152.3

11.3

7.1

7.  day

01.09.93

137.5

12.0

16.0

155.6

12.0

5.4

9.  day

03.09.93

28.6

13.1

89.6

160.8

13.1

2.7

12.  day

06.09.93

14.0

13.0

99.3

161.5

13.0

2.2

14.  day

08.09.93

12.8

12.3

99.7

158.4

12.3

3.8

15.  day

09.09.93

10.9

8.7

98.5.

-

-

-

16.   day

10.09.93

10.2

7.7

98.3

143.0

7.7

10.9

19.  day

13.09.93

-

-

-

157.1

7.0

1.1

21.  day

15.09.93

-

-

-

153.0

8.4

4.7

23.  day

17.09.93

-

-

-

154.4

4.3

1.1

26.  day

20.09.93

-

-

-

157.8

5.5

0

28.  day

22.09.93

-

-

-

155.7

4.3

0.3

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
not inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
The bioelimination of the test substance FAT - 92'368/A after 28 days was found to be 0.3 %.
Executive summary:

The inherent biodegradability of FAT - 92'368/A was determined in a 28 days Zahn-Wellens - Test according to the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No. 302B, Paris 1981 and the EEC-Directive, L133 (pp. 99-105) Volume 31, May 88.

The test substance was tested in concentration of 150 mg/l DOC. The reference substance Diethylenglycol was also tested in a concentration of 150 mg/l DOC. The duration of the study was 28 days. SHIMADZU TOC/DOC analyser was used for determination of DOC removal. Based on the findings of the study, the bioelimination of the test substance FAT - 92'368/A after 28 days was found to be 0.3 %. The bioelimination of the reference substance after 16 days was 98.3 %.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
BOD5
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
ISO 5815 (Water quality - Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand after 5 Days (BOD5) - Dilution and Seeding Method)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Aerate over night after addition of the inoculum
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.5 (Degradation: Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Code number: 92'368/A
EN/Batch: PLN 13
Purity: ca 80 %
Appearance: solid
Solubility: miscible
Storage: room temperature
Expiration date: 03/98
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
Seeding water of an urban waste water.
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Initial conc.:
803.2 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
401.6 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
200.8 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
100.4 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
50.2 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
25.1 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
12.6 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Initial conc.:
6.3 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Estimation Technique : O2 - Determination, measured with an oxygen sensitive electrode system SYLAND (SAV : 00 107)
Suppression of nitrification: without suppression of nitrification
Reference substance:
other: D(+) - Glucose (Merck Nr. 8337) / L-Glutamic acid (Merck Nr. 291)
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
0 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
The BOD5 of Glucose/Glutamic acid solution is : 190 mg O2/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
no
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The Biological Oxygen Demand of FAT 92368/A was determined to be 0 mg O2/g test material.
Executive summary:

The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of FAT 92368/A was determined according to method ISO 5815 Second Edition 1989-08-01 (E) corresponding to 92 / 96 / EEC C.5. The test substance was tested in concentrations from about 6 to 800 mg/l. The reference substance D(+)-Glucose / L-Glutamic acid was tested in a concentration of 20 ml/L.

Based on the findings of the study, the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of FAT 92368/A was determined to be 0 mg O2/g test material, while that of reference substance was 190 mg O2/L.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
COD
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.6 (Degradation: Chemical Oxygen Demand)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Mean of 2 determinations instead of 3
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Code number: 92'368/A
EN/Batch: PLN 13
Purity: ca. 80 %
Appearance: solid
Solubility: miscible
Storage: room temperature
Expiration date: 03/98
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Duration of test (contact time):
2 h
Initial conc.:
5 mg/L
Based on:
COD
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Sample weight: 5.0 mg of the test substance
Temperature: 148±3 °C
Duration: 2 hours
Estimation Technique: Titration (Potentiometrie) METROHM Titroprozessor 670
Reference substance:
other: Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (Merck-Nr. 11'769)
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Details on results:
no data
Parameter:
COD
Value:
892 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
The COD of Potassium hydrogen phthalate is (Criteria: 200±8 mg O2/I) : 198 mg O2/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
no
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The Chemical Oxygen Demand of FAT 92368/A was determined to be 892 mg O2/g test material.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate Chemical Oxygen Demand of the test substance FAT 92368/A according to DEV DIN 38'409 - H 41-1 (1980) corresponding toE U 92/96/EEC C.6. A predeterminated amount of the test substance FAT - 92'368/A dissolved in water is oxidized by potassium dichromate in a strong sulphuric acid medium with silver sulphate as a catalyst under reflux for 2 hours. The residual dichromate is determined by titration with standardized ferrous ammonium sulphate. The test substance concentration was tested in 5.0 mg/l. The reference substance Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution was tested in a concentration of 20 mL/L. Based on the findings of the study, the COD of FAT - 92'368/A was determined to be 892 mg 02/g, while that of the reference substance was 198 mg O2/L.

Description of key information

Acid Yellow 220 can be considered to be not readily biodegradable. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

By the nature of their design and use, textile dyes are not intended to be readily biodegradable as this would assist in the rapid destruction of the dyestuff, rendering it unfit for purpose.

There are ISO, European, American (AATCC) and national standards for the colour fastness of dyes. Dyes are required to have specific fastness properties. If the dyes were biodegradable, it would not be possible for them to have these fastness properties.

As such, it is accepted that such substances are not readily biodegradable under relevant environmental conditions. A published study (Pagga & Brown, 1986) describes the results of the testing of 87 dyestuffs in short-term aerobic biodegradation tests. The authors of this publication concluded that dyestuffs are very unlikely to show any significant biodegradation in such tests and that 'there seems little point in carrying out such test procedures’ on dyestuffs.

Nevertheless, biodegradability of Acid Yellow 220 was tested over the years in several Zahn Wellens tests as well as tests evaluating Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).

In the most recent Zahn Wellens Test (1993) designated as key study, the elimination observed was 0.3 %. Similarly in the studies determining BOD5 and COD (1993), the BOD5/COD ratio was 0/892 equalling 0. Several other studies indicated BOD5/COD ratio to be equalling 0. Hence, Acid Yellow 220 should regarded as not readily biodegradable.