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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Mostly by cross-reading from Chloramine-T: Rapid and complete oral uptake followed by rapid excretion mainly with urine. Overall dermal absorption about 20%.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
no bioaccumulation potential
Absorption rate - oral (%):
100
Absorption rate - dermal (%):
20
Absorption rate - inhalation (%):
100

Additional information

Information is available from cross-reading from chloramine-T.

It is shown that [14C]-Chloramine-T is almost instantaneously converted to p-TSA in contact with stomach and intestinal contents of rat. Similarly, also an in-vitro dermal absorption study demonstrated the conversion of Chloramine-T, resulting to only p-TSA to pass the skin.

Therefore the available ADME data on Chloramine-T is directly applicable in p-TSA.

 

ADME studies indicate that Chloramine-T (in the form of p-TSA) is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration, and relatively fast completely excreted again, mostly via the urine, as a benzoic acid derivative (4-sulfamoylbenozic acid, CAS 138-41-0). At termination, only about 1% of the activity remained in the body. About 78-87% is excreted in the urine, and 13-16% via the faeces. About 4-6% passes with the bile.

The tissue concentration of Chloramine-T equivalents (measured radiolabel) were below the concentration observed in blood in all groups indicating that there is no potential for accumulation. The availabe information from acute oral toxicity on p-TSA confirms this assessment. Clinical signs appear quick and at not too high dose levels resolve again within a day. At high dose levels pecifically involvent of the urinary tract is observed.

In-vitro dermal penetration studies with 0.5% aq Chloramine-T solution show that approximately 12% passed the skin completely and about 8% of the applied dose passed the stratum corneum but remained fixed in the skin after 24 hours. This results to an overall absorption of about 20%. Dermal absorption is thus lower then oral absorption. The amount of 20% can be regarded as worst case, as the level of absorption decreases with increasing concentrations: At a concentration of 3% only 4% passed the skin and total absorption was about 10%.

Metabolism: In the urine samples from Chloramine-T studies, one major radioactivity peak was observed. This peak was identified as benzoic acid derivative (4-sulfamoylbenozic acid, CAS 138-41-0).

An older study from literature on p-TSA confirms the identity of the major metabolite (Ball, L.M., et al., 1978). Female albino Wistar rats were given a single low and high oral dose (29 mg/kg bw in 1ml 20% ethanol in water and 200 mg/kg bw in 50% aq. propylene glycol (1ml)). This study also identified the small amounts of other metabolites found next to a remaining small amount of parent compound p-TSA (1.5-2.3%). Other identified metabolites were 4-sulphamoylbenzyl alcohol (2.0-3.9%), 4-sulphamoylbenzaldehyde (0-1.5%) and at high dose N-acetyltoluene-4-sulphonamide (2.1-2.3%). Other studies reported in literature on metabolism were largely qualitative and confirm the metabolite4-sulfamoylbenozic acid in urine of dogs and rats (Flaschenträger B., et al., 1934; Minegishi, K. I., et al., 1972).

There is no information in uptake following inhalation. Due to the very low vp any relevant uptake has to be by means of aerosols or particles.These will deposit mainly on upper airways, and will be subsequently swallowed following mucociliary transportation to pharynx. This results to no principal difference in absorption compared oral route.