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Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
see Analogue justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Total exposure / uptake duration:
ca.
Total depuration duration:
ca.
Key result
Conc. / dose:
7 µg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
138 dimensionless
Basis:
other: whole body weight and total fat
Time of plateau:
6 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Key result
Conc. / dose:
35 µg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
159 dimensionless
Basis:
other: whole body weight and total fat
Time of plateau:
6 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other:
Key result
Elimination:
yes
Parameter:
other: below limit of quantification of 0.35 µg/l
Depuration time (DT):
8 d
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented and peer reviewed publication which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 305 E (Bioaccumulation: Flow-through Fish Test)
Version / remarks:
1981
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
1 concentration tested, fish loading of 2.7 g fish/L higher than in current OECD 305 (1 g/L)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Stock solution of phenol was dissolved in methanol. Methanol concentration in accumulation vessels was 0.05 %.
Water influent flow was 250 ml/min
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: zebra fish
- Source: not specified
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 3-6 months
- Length at study initiation (lenght definition, mean, range and SD): 3.5 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): around 0.454 g
- Weight at termination (mean and range, SD): around 0.454 g
- Fat content at test termination: 27.06 g/kg fish
- Method of breeding: not specified
- Feeding during test: no feeding, accumulation period 5 hours

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 14 d prior to test
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same as test, flow-through
- Type and amount of food: not specified
- Feeding frequency: not specified
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
5 h
Total depuration duration:
10 h
Hardness:
Water influent: 8.4 °dH total hardness = 1.5 mmol earthalkali ions = 149.5 mg CaCO3/L
Carbonate hardness 2,9 °dH in all vessels = 51.6 mg CaCO3/L
Test aquarium 11.4 °dH
Cultivation 7.2 °dH
Test temperature:
25 °C
pH:
7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
7.8 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: glass aquaria
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: aquaria filled with 25 L test water
- Aeration: no
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): peristaltic pump
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 250 mL water / min flow
- No. of organisms per vessel: 150 Fische/25 L
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control / vehicle control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 2.72 g fish/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: tap water
- Particulate matter: 0.14 - 0.29 g/L
- Alkalinity: 2.0 - 3.0 mmol/L
- Holding medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of test medium replacement: flow-through


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: no information, test performance according to OECD 305E
- Light intensity: no information, test performance according to OECD 305E

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 2 mg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS INFORMATION
- Measured/calculated logPow: log k-value, which correlates with logPow; log Pow recalculated to be 1.47

BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: "BIOKONZ" written by authors in BASIC, BCFs were calculated from the kinetics of the uptake and the clearance phase,
based on a two-compartment model (fish-water), Calculation of the uptake and depuration rate constants were performed according to OECD 305 (1996).

- Result based on calculated log Pow of: BCF calculated with logPow of 1.47 is 3.54 (median of 9 logPow values obtained with 9 different equations)
Type:
BCF
Value:
17.5
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
3 h
Calculation basis:
kinetic
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:2 mg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
647
Basis:
total lipid content
Time of plateau:
3 h
Calculation basis:
kinetic
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:2 mg/L
Elimination:
yes
Parameter:
other: nearly complete depuration, estimated from graphic (see report)
Depuration time (DT):
5 h
Elimination:
yes
Parameter:
DT50
Depuration time (DT):
0.83 h
Elimination:
yes
Parameter:
DT90
Depuration time (DT):
2.75 h
Details on kinetic parameters:
- Uptake rate constant (k1): 14.6 (1/h)
- Depuration (loss) rate constant (k2): 0.838 (1/h)
- Indication of bi- or multiphasic kinetics: no
Metabolites:
no information
Results with reference substance (positive control):
no information
Details on results:
- Mortality of test organisms: not reported
- Behavioural abnormalities: not reported
- Observations on body length and weight: 5 h accumulation period plus 10 h depuration period, no effects on body weight and length
- Other biological observations: not reported
- Organ specific bioaccumulation: bioaccumulation in fat: 647 BCF
- Mortality and/or behavioural abnormalities of control: not reported
- Loss of test substance during test period: no, flow-through

Results:

Table: Measured concentrations of phenol in total fish

  Time (h) Concentration in fish (mg/kg wwt)              
0.3  11.706            
0.5  17.641             
1.0  21.399             
2.0  28.855             
5.0  28.290             
6.0  16.244             
 7.0  12.143            
 9.0  6.666            
 15.0  0            
               
Conclusions:
In a flow-through test with Danio rerio (zebra fish) the BCF value of phenol was determined. Phenol was measured in water, total fish and fat. The BCF was calculated from kinetic parameters (accumulation-/clearance phase).
The BCF for total fish was calculated to be 17.5. The test was performed according to the OECD guideline 305E (1981) using 1 concentration (2 mg/L) and a higher fish loading than recommended in the current guideline. In the current guideline 2 concentrations are recommended.
The steady state of uptake was reached between 2 and 5 hours, though only two successive analyses of the concentration in fish were made (after 3 and 5 hours). The calculated uptake phase using the log Kow 1.47 according to OECD 305 is 10 hours and the calculated depuration phase is also 10 hours. The uptake phase of 5 hours is regarded to be plausible and the study is regarded to be reliable. Regarding the remaining uncertainties it should be considered, that for substances with a log Kow < 3 generally no potential for bioaccumulation is expected and no bioaccumulation studies are required.
Executive summary:

In a flow-through test with Danio rerio (zebra fish) the BCF value of phenol was determined. Phenol was measured in water, total fish and fat. The BCF was calculated from kinetic parameters (accumulation-/clearance phase).

The test was performed according to the OECD guideline 305E (1981) using 1 concentration of 2 mg/L and a higher fish loading than recommended in the current guideline. In the current guideline 2 concentrations are recommended.

The steady state of uptake was reached between 2 and 5 hours, though only two successive analyses of the concentration in fish were made (after 3 and 5 hours). The calculated uptake phase using the log Kow according to the current OECD 305 is 10 hours and the calculated depuration phase is also 10 hours, confirming the short periods used. The uptake phase of 5 hours in the presented study is regarded to be plausible and the study is regarded to be reliable. The concentrations in fish during the uptake phase were measured after 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 hours. After 2 and 5 hours same concentrations were found. After 1 hour the concentration in fish was only 25 % lower than the level after 2 hours, slightly lower than the cut-off criteria for using the concentration as a steady state concentration. Though there are only two concentrations available with 20 % of each other, it can be assumed that the steady-state was reached between 2 and 5 hours, due to the comparable levels of the samples. Since there was a long time-span between the samplings (in relation to the total uptake phase) it can be expected that samplings between 2 and 5 hours would have confirmed the steady-state concentration.

With respect to the remaining uncertainties it should be considered, that for substances with a log Kow 3 generally no potential for bioaccumulation is expected and no bioaccumulation studies are required.

The BCF for total fish was calculated to be 17.5 and for total lipid content 647. The depuration half-life (DT50) was calculated to be 0.83 hours and the DT90 was 2.75 hours.

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Validated QSAR model. Calculation for min component 2-ethylhexanoic acid
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.10. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: fish
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 2.96 (KOWWIN v1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
3.16 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999).
Type:
BCF
Value:
37.9 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Upper trophic, incl. biotransformation estimates; The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003).
Type:
BCF
Value:
47.51 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Upper trophic, incl. biotransformation rate of zero; The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003).
Type:
BAF
Value:
37.9 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Upper trophic, incl. biotransformation estimates; The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003).
Type:
BAF
Value:
50.69 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Upper trophic, incl. biotransformation rate of zero; The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003).
Details on kinetic parameters:
Biotransformation half-life (days): 0.5184
Biotransformation rate (kM, normalised to 10 g fish at 15 °C): -
The substance is within the applicability domain of the BCFBAF submodel: Biotransformation rate in fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b).

Summary Results:

Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.518 (normalized to 10 g fish)

Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): 1.58 (BAF = 37.9 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): 2.64

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 2.64

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

Log BCF = 0.50 (Ionic; Log Kow dependent)

 

 

Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.0341

Frag | 1 | Aliphatic acid  [-C(=O)-OH]             | 0.3803 | 0.3803

Frag | 2 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.4902

Frag | 4 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 0.0967

Frag | 1 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.1912

L Kow| * | Log Kow =  2.64 (experimental  )       | 0.3073 | 0.8114

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -0.3698

Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5058

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -0.2853

RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.5184

NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

kM (Rate Constant): 1.337 /day (10 gram fish)

kM (Rate Constant): 0.7519 /day (100 gram fish)

kM (Rate Constant): 0.4228 /day (1 kg fish)

kM (Rate Constant): 0.2378 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 1.579 (BCF = 37.94 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 1.579 (BAF = 37.94 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = 1.441 (BCF = 27.6 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = 1.441 (BAF = 27.6 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = 1.394 (BCF = 24.76 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = 1.394 (BAF = 24.78 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 1.677 (BCF = 47.51 L/kg wet-wt)

Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 1.705 (BAF = 50.69 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Executive summary:

QPRF: BCFBAF v3.01

 

1.

Substance

See “Test material identity”

2.

General information

 

2.1

Date of QPRF

See “Data Source (Reference)”

2.2

QPRF author and contact details

See “Data Source (Reference)”

3.

Prediction

3.1

Endpoint
(OECD Principle 1)

Endpoint

Bioaccumulation (aquatic)

Dependent variable

- Bioconcentration factor (BCF)

- Bioaccumulation factor (BAF; 15 °C)

- Biotransformation rate (kM) and half-life

3.2

Algorithm
(OECD Principle 2)

Model or submodel name

BCFBAF

Submodels:

1) Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)

2) Biotransformation rate in fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b)

3) Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003)

Model version

v. 3.01

Reference to QMRF

Estimation of Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biotransformation in fish using BCFBAF v3.01 (EPI Suite v4.11)

Predicted value (model result)

See “Results and discussion”

Input for prediction

Chemical structure via CAS number or SMILES; log Kow (optional)

Descriptor values

- SMILES: structure of the compound as SMILES notation

- log Kow

- Molecular weight

3.3

Applicability domain
(OECD principle 3)

Domains:

1) Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)

a) Ionic/non-Ionic

The substance is non-ionic.

b) Molecular weight (range of test data set):

- Ionic: 68.08 to 991.80

- Non-ionic: 68.08 to 959.17

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.1.3 Estimation Domain and Appendix G)

The substance is within range (370.58 g/mol).

c) log Kow (range of test data set):

- Ionic: -6.50 to 11.26

- Non-ionic: -1.37 to 11.26

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.1.3 Estimation Domain and Appendix G)

The substance is within range (8.94).

 

d) Maximum number of instances of correction factor in any of the training set compounds (On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Appendix E)

Not exceeded.

2) Biotransformation rate in fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b)

a) The substance does not appreciably ionize at physiological pH.

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)

fulfilled

b) Molecular weight (range of test data set): 68.08 to 959.17

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)

The substance is within range (370.58 g/mol).

c) The molecular weight is ≤ 600 g/mol.

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)

fulfilled

d) Log Kow: 0.31 to 8.70

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)

The substance is not within range (8.94).

e) The substance is no metal or organometal, pigment or dye, or a perfluorinated substance.

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)

fulfilled

f) Maximum number of instances of biotransformation fragments in any of the training set compounds (On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Appendix F)

Not exceeded.

3) Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003)

a) Log Kow ≤ 9

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.3.1)

fulfilled

b) The substance does not appreciably ionize.

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.3.1)

fulfilled

c) The substance is no pigment, dye, or perfluorinated substance.

(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.3.1)

fulfilled

3.4

The uncertainty of the prediction
(OECD principle 4)

1. Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)

Statistical accuracy of the training data set (non-ionic plus ionic data):

- Correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.833

- Standard deviation = 0.502 log units

- Absolute mean error = 0.382 log units

 

2. Biotransformation Rate in Fish (kM)

Statistical accuracy (training set):

- Correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.821

- Correlation coefficient (Q2) = 0.753

- Standard deviation = 0.494 log units

- Absolute mean error = 0.383 log units

 

3. Arnot-Gobas BAF/BCF model

No information on the statistical accuracy given in the documentation.

3.5

The chemical mechanisms according to the model underpinning the predicted result
(OECD principle 5)

1. The BCF model is mainly based on the relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity. The model also takes into account the chemical structure and the ionic/non-ionic character of the substance.

 

2. Bioaccumulation is the net result of relative rates of chemical inputs to an organism from multimedia exposures (e.g., air, food, and water) and chemical outputs (or elimination) from the organism.

 

3. The model includes mechanistic processes for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation such as chemical uptake from the water at the gill surface (BCFs and BAFs) and the diet (BAFs only), and chemical elimination at the gill surface, fecal egestion, growth dilution and metabolic biotransformation (Arnot and Gobas 2003). Other processes included in the calculations are bioavailability in the water column (only the freely dissolved fraction can bioconcentrate) and absorption efficiencies at the gill and in the gastrointestinal tract.

References

- Arnot JA, Gobas FAPC. 2003. A generic QSAR for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs. QSAR and Combinatorial Science 22: 337-345.

- Arnot JA, Mackay D, Parkerton TF, Bonnell M. 2008a. A database of fish biotransformation rates for organic chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(11), 2263-2270.

- Arnot JA, Mackay D, Bonnell M. 2008b.Estimating metabolic biotransformation rates in fish from laboratory data. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27: 341-351.

- Meylan, W.M., Howard, P.H, Aronson, D., Printup, H. and S. Gouchie. 1997. "Improved Method for Estimating Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) from Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient", SRC TR-97-006 (2nd Update), July 22, 1997; prepared for: Robert S. Boethling, EPA-OPPT, Washington, DC; Contract No. 68-D5-0012; prepared by: ; Syracuse Research Corp., Environmental Science Center, 6225 Running Ridge Road, North Syracuse, NY 13212.

- Meylan, WM, Howard, PH, Boethling, RS et al. 1999. Improved Method for Estimating Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation Factor from Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18(4): 664-672 (1999). 

- US EPA (2012). On-Line BCFBAF Help File.

 

 

Identified Correction Factors (Appendix E), Biotransformation Fragments and Coefficient values (Appendix F)

The Training Set used to derive the Coefficient Values listed below contained a total of 421 compounds (see Appendix I for the compound list).

.

Fragment Description

Coefficient value

No. compounds containing fragment in total training set

Maximum number of each fragment in any individual compound

No. of instances of each fragment for the current substance

Linear C4 terminal chain  [CCC-CH3]        

0,03412373

43

3

1

Aliphatic acid   [-C(=O)-OH]                

0,38030117

1

2

1

Methyl  [-CH3]                              

0,24510529

170

12

2

-CH2-  [linear]                            

0,02418707

109

28

4

-CH-   [linear]                            

-0.19123158

50

2

1

Assessment of Applicability Domain Based on Molecular Weight and log Kow

 

1. Bioconcentration Factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)

Training set: Molecular weights

Ionic

Non-ionic

Minimum

68,08

68,08

Maximum

991,80

959,17

Average

244,00

244,00

Assessment of molecular weight

Molecular weight within range of training set.

Training set: Log Kow

Ionic

Non-ionic

Minimum

-6,50

-1,37

Maximum

11,26

11,26

Assessment of log Kow

Log Kow within range of training set.

2. Biotransformation Rate in Fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b)

Training set: Molecular weights

Minimum

68,08

Maximum

959,17

Average

259,75

Assessment of molecular weight

Molecular weight within range of training set.

Training set: Log Kow

Minimum

0,31

Maximum

8,70

Assessment of log Kow

Log Kow outside of range of training set. Therefore, the estimate may be less accurate.

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented and peer reviewed publication which meets basic scientific.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Trophic magnification (TMF) was investigated in a marine aquatic food web considering 14 marine species including, plankton, benthic invertebrates, fish and marine birds
GLP compliance:
no
Radiolabelling:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: 14 species of an marine aquatic food web
Details on test organisms:
Aquatic food web components were collected in May, June, and September 2002 in the Bohai Bay (39°12'N, 117°59'E). Seabirds were collected in November 2002 on the coast of Bohai Bay (39°07'N, 117°44'E). The part of the marine food web investigated in this study included primary producers (including phytoplankton and zooplankton), five invertebrate species (crab (Portunus trituberculatus), burrowing shrimp (Upogebia sp.), short-necked clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa), and bay scallop (Argopecten irradians)), six fish species (weever (Lateolabras japonicus), catfish (Chaeturichthys stigmatias), bartail flathead (Platycephalus indicus), white flower croaker (Nibea albiflora), wolffish (Obontamblyopus rubicundus), and mullet (Liza so-iuy)), and one seabird species (herring gull, Larus argentatus). The primary producers were obt ined from vertical tows (bottom to surface) using 77-ím-mesh nets 31.6 cm in i.d. 140 m in length for phytoplankton and
160 µm-mesh nets 37 cm in i.d. 140 m in length for zooplankton. Isotope and chemical analyses for the plankton were made on a pooled sample taken from six locations. Invertebrates and fish were caught with a bottom trawl. The isotope and chemical analyses for invertebrates were conducted
on a pooled sample of more than six samples taken from six locations. Six-month-old seabirds were captured before their winter migration commenced. All samples were stored at -20 °C prior to analysis.
Route of exposure:
feed
Test type:
field study
Water / sediment media type:
natural sediment: marine
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
The trophic magnification factors (TMFs) are based on the relationships between the trophic level and the 4 -nonylphenol concentration using simple linear regression: The concentrations below the detection limit were treated as half of the detection limit.Correlations between concentrations and trophic levels were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test, and when the value of p was below 0.05, the linear regression between concentration and trophic level was regarded as significant. Biomagnification factors were calculated by the following equation: BMF = ([predator]/[prey]((TLpred/TLprey)), where [predator] and [prey] are the lipid corrected concentrations in the predator and prey species, respectively.
Type:
BMF
Value:
1.15 - 1.51 dimensionless
Basis:
normalised lipid fraction
Calculation basis:
other: quotient of predator / prey concentrations
Type:
other: TMF
Value:
0.83

Concentrations in Marine Biota from Bohai Bay

4-NP was detected in all samples, and the concentration ranged from 142.6 to 677.8 ng/g lipid. 4-NP concentration levels have been reported previously in mollusks such as clams, cuttlefish, squid,andmussels from marine ecosystems. Wenzel et al. reported the retrospective monitoring of 4-NP in common mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the North Sea and Baltic Sea (2004). Wenzel’s study clarified the fact that 4-NP was detected in all mussel samples from 1985 until 1997, with the highest value of 9.7 ng/g wet weight at Eckwarderhorne in 1985, while the 4-NP concentrations were lower than limit of quantification (2 ng/g wet weight) after 1997. The concentrations detected in clams and mussels from the Adriatic Sea (Ferrara et al. 2001) were 243-265 ng/g lipid. The 4-NP concentration in short-necked clams detected in this study was 170 ng/g lipid which is slightly lower than for shortnecked clams from the Adriatic Sea. The concentrations in bay scallops, crabs, burrowing shrimp, and veined rapa Whelk were also determined and were similar to the 4-NP concentration in short-necked clams. Of six fish species, the 4-NP concentration in catfish was the lowest (151.4 ng/g lipid), and the highest concentration (more than 300 ng/g lipid) was found in mullet and wolfish. Although little reports were found for 4-NP concentration level in marine fish, the 4-NP concentrations in flounder from a United Kingdom estuary were reported in the range of 5-55 ng/g wet weight, which was slightly higher those (5.0-24.3 ng/g wet weight) detected in the present study. This study also presents the 4-NP concentration in herring gull and phytoplankton, and the concentration for the former is 239.6 ( 99.9 ng/g lipid (n = 4) and that for the latter is 440 ng/g lipid (composite sample from six sampling sites) which was slightly lower than the 4-NP concentration in zooplankton, 677.8 ng/g lipid (composite sample from six sampling sites).

Predator/Prey Biomagnification Factors (BMFs)

Although seabirds often feed on a range of diet items, fish were commonly found in the stomach of herring gull. For the herring gull to catfish, bartail flathead, white flower croaker predator/prey relationship, the BMFs for 4-NP were 1.15-1.51 and the average BMF was 1.02, suggesting no biomagnification between trophic levels.

On the other hand, the average BMFs of p,p’-DDE, DDMU, and DDTs were 26.1, 10.8, and 13.6, respectively. When comparing BMFs for p,p’-DDE, DDMU, and DDTs to 4-NP, the large discrepancy was observed for all herring gull to fish predator/prey.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
A monitoring field study showed the absence of biomagnification of 4-nonylphenol in a marine aquatic food web. This indicates that secondary poisoning of seabirds via food is negligible.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
22 Jul - 09 Sep 2009
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
GLP - Guideline study, tested with the source substance Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS No. 174333-80-3). According to the ECHA guidance document “Practical guide 6: How to report read-across and categories (March 2010)”, the reliability was changed from RL1 to RL2 to reflect the fact that this study was conducted on a read-across substance.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
- Vapour pressure: 0.37 Pa at 20 °C
- Water solubility: < 0.1 mg/L
- log Pow: 5.5

OTHER PROPERTIES
- Ready biodegradability (where appropriate): 0 % degradation in 28 days
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test organisms: 2 fish were pooled and analysed from each test item group sampled on days 2, 6, 14 and 28 of the uptake phase as well as on days 1, 4, 8, 14 and 21 of the depuration phase. Only one fish was analysed on day 28 of the uptake phase.
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test medium samples: Aqueous phase samples from both test item groups were analysed from the uptake phase days 0.5, 1, 2, 21, 26, 27 and 28 and on days 0.5 and 1 of the depuration phase.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared by adding the respective amount test material to the test media.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): methanol
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) at different concentrations and in control(s)): 0.1 mL/L
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Forellenzucht Kasselmann, Forelletal 12, Hagen Germany
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): approx. 5 month
- Length at study initiation (lenght definition, mean, range and SD): 8 +/- 4 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 2-3 g
- Weight at termination (mean and range, SD): 10-12 g
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Aller Performa Gr.2
- Amount: 2% of body weight
- Frequency: twice daily

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least 12 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same
- Type and amount of food: same as test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): < 5% within the last 7 days before test start
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
ca. 28 d
Total depuration duration:
ca. 21 d
Hardness:
64 - 66 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
14.5 - 16.3 °C
pH:
7.22 - 7.61
Dissolved oxygen:
87 - 100% saturation
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 200 L glass aquaria covered by glass tops and a fill volume of 120 L test solution
- Aeration: gentle aeration
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 25 L/h resulting in 5 volume replacement per day
- No. of organisms per vessel: 85
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control / vehicle control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: The nominal loading rate did not exceed a range of 0.1 to 1.0 g of fish/L/d.

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: according to guideline
- Holding medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Oxygen saturation and pH was measured three times per week in all test vessels (on day 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, 37, 40, 42, 44 and 48). Temperature was measured continuously (every hour) using data logger.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: diurnal light with 16 hlight and 8 h dark
- Light intensity: 0.1 - 10 µmol/m2/s
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 7 and 35 µg/L with recovery of 35-68% (mean 50%) and 31-51% (mean 38%), respectively
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS INFORMATION
- Measured/calculated logPow: > 3.5 (at 25°C), estimated 5.86 (Kowwin 1.67)

Because of the very short depuration phase, steady state BCF have been calculated from the repsective concentrations in fish and water
Key result
Conc. / dose:
7 µg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
138 dimensionless
Basis:
other: whole body weight and total fat
Time of plateau:
6 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other:
Key result
Conc. / dose:
35 µg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
159 dimensionless
Basis:
other: whole body weight and total fat
Time of plateau:
6 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other:
Elimination:
yes
Parameter:
other: below limit of quantification of 0.35 µg/l
Depuration time (DT):
8 d
Details on results:
- Mortality of test organisms: one fish died on day 9 in the low concentration group
- Behavioural abnormalities: no abnormal feeding behaviour
- Observations on body length and weight: no statistical significant differences in growth rates in the groups (incl. negative control)
- Mortality and/or behavioural abnormalities of control: no

Uptake phase: The uptake phase was characterised by a distinct increase of the concentration of the test substance in the fish within 6 days followed by a clear plateau phase (steady state phase) where no further increase was found. The plateau phase was observed for both exposure levels from day 6 to day 28 (22 days). The mean measured concentrations of the water samples were 3.5 and 13.4 µg/L (50 % and 38 % of the nominal concentrations), respectively.

Depuration phase: After the transfer of the remaining fish to untreated water a rapid decrease of the concentration of the test substance in the fish was observed. The concentration in the fish of the lower exposure group of 7 1 µg/L had dropped below the limit of quantification on day 4 of the depuration phase. At the higher exposure group (35 µg/L) this was observed on day 8.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
As steady state BCF were <=159 (log BCF <= 2.2) and depuration took place within 4 to 8 days, it can be concluded that the test substance does not accumulate remarkably in fish.
Executive summary:

The test substance was tested for its bioaccumulation in a study according to OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test) using the species Oncorhynchus mykiss under GLP conditions. The fish were exposed for 4 weeks followed by a three week depuration period. the two concentration of 7 and 35 µg/l were used. Based on whole body weight and total fat and assuming steady state, for both concentrations a plateau was reached after 6 days. The BCF were approx. 138 and 159, respectively. While one fish died, neither abnormal behaviour nor abnormal growth was observed. Depuration was achieved after 4 and 8 days, respectively.

From the low BCF and the depuration, it can be concluded that the test substance does not accumulate remarkably in fish.

Description of key information

All constituents of Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime, branched do not bioaccumulate in aquatic or sediment organisms.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (aquatic species):
159 dimensionless

Additional information

Since no study assessing the bioaccumulation potential of Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime, branched (CAS 244235-47-0) is available, in accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5 Grouping of substances, a read-across approach was applied. To assess the bioaccumulation potential of the main component (C9 Ketoxime) read across to the structurally related source substance Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS 174333-80-3) was conducted. The only structural difference between the source substance and the main component of the target substance is the lack of a methyl group at the oxime carbon of the source substance. The read across is justified due to (i) the similarity of structure and functional groups and accordingly (ii) similar physico-chemical properties resulting in a similar environmental fate and ecotoxicity profile (see table below).

In addition, available experimental data and QSAR calculations with the minor constituents branched nonylphenol (CAS 84852-15-3), phenol (CAS 108-95-2) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (CAS 149-57-5) were used to be able to adequately conclude on the bioaccumulation potential of the whole UVCB target substance.

Substance

Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime, branched

Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched

CAS number

244235-47-0

174333-80-3

Structure

see attachment

see attachment

Molecular formula

C17H27NO2

C16O2NH25

Molecular weight

~ 277 g/mole

~ 263 g/mole

PC parameter

 

 

Water solubility

 > 0.02 < 0.1 mg/L (EU method A.6)

0.4 mg/L (EU method A.6)

Partition coefficient

> 5.7 (EU method A.8)

5.5 (EU method A.8)

Vapour pressure

< 1.5 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)

0.37 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)

Environmental fate

 

 

Biodegradability

1 % in 28 days (BODIS)

0 % in 28 days (OECD 302c)

Adsorption [log KOC]

3.9 (OECD 121)

3.7 (OECD 121)

Hydrolysis

not relevant due to very low water solubility

Ecotoxicology

 

 

Short-term toxicity to fish

[96h-LC50]

0.46 mg/L (EU method C.1)

1.1 mg/L (EU method C.1)

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[48h-EC50]

-

2.7 mg/L (EU method C.2)

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[21d-NOEC]

2.8 mg/L (OECD 211)

0.189 mg/L (OECD 211)

Short-term toxicity to algae

[72h-EC50]

760 mg/L (OECD 201)

36.3 mg/L (OECD 201)

Long-term toxicity to algae

[72h-NOEC]

472 mg/L (OECD 201)

14.9 mg/L (OECD 201)

Toxicity to microorganisms

[3h-EC10]

260.1mg/L (OECD 209)

200.4 mg/L (OECD 209)

The bioaccumulation study with the source substance Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched was performed according to GLP and OECD guideline 305 using Oncorhynchus mykiss as test organism. The fish were exposed for 4 weeks followed by a three week depuration period. Test substance concentrations of 7 and 35 µg/L were used. Based on whole body weight and total fat and assuming steady state, for both concentrations a plateau was reached after 6 days. The BCF is determined to be 138 and 159, respectively. While one fish died, neither abnormal behaviour nor abnormal growth was observed. Depuration was achieved after 4 and 8 days, respectively. Thus it can be concluded that the bioaccumulation potential of the main component is low. This conclusion is supported by results of numerous publications showing similar low BCF values (167-740) of branched nonylphenol (CAS 84852-15-3) for different taxa (see respective dossier at ECHA database). In addition, the two minor constituents phenol (CAS 108-95-2) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (CAS 149-57-5) do also not bioaccumulate as shown in available test data or valid QSAR calculations.

Based on the low measured BCF values (which is much lower than the threshold value of 2000 listed in ECHAs Guidance on information requirement and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.11) and the depuration rates measured for a suitable source substance as well as the constituents of the substance to be registered, it can be concluded that the whole UVCB substance does not accumulate remarkably in fish.