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Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: published in a peer-reviewed scientific publication and in the EU Risk Assessment DODMAC (EU, 2002) but limited information about the test setting
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:
Aquatic safety assessment for cationic surfactant
Lewis M. and Wee V.
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 2, pp. 105-1 18, 1983

Materials and methods

Test guideline
equivalent or similar to guideline
OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C16-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides
EC Number:
EC Name:
Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C16-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
R2N+(CH3)2, Cl- with R is fatty alkyl with chainlengths C16-C18 (even numbered)
N-C16-C18(even numbered)-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-C16-C18(even numbered)-alkyl-1-aminium chloride
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
N,N-Dimethyl-N,N-di-n-alkyl(C16-18)-ammoniumchloride, 14C-labelled at either the methyl- or the α-C-position
N,N-Dimethyl-N,N-di-n-alkyl(C16-18)-ammoniumchloride, 14C-labelled at either the methyl- or the α-C-position
Test material form:
Details on test material:
14C-DHTDMAC was radiolabeled on the methyl position or on the alpha-C-position.
Test material specified as C16/C18 dialkyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride.

Test solutions

Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
No solvents were used.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, were obtained from commercial fish hatcheries and ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 g in weight and from 23 to 60 mm in length. Fish were acclimated for 14 to 30 d prior to use in water having physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of the water used in the tests. Fish were fed trout chow daily during acclimation, but were not fed 24 to 48 h prior to and during testing.

Study design

Route of exposure:
Test type:
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
49 d
Total depuration duration:
21 - 35 d

Test conditions

14-38 mg/L CaCO3 (Town river)
315-348 mg/L CaCO3 (Well water)
Test temperature:
no data
6.4-1.1 (Town river)
1.1-7.9 (Well water)
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
TOC: no data
Suspended matter: Town river 2-84 mg/L, Well water 0 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
Bluegill were exposed to nominal 20-µglL concentrations of I4C-labeled DODMAC in aerated, carbon-filtered well water and also in Town River water under continuous flow conditions. No solvent was used in the two tests. Bluegill averaged 1.3 g in weight and 38 mm in length. The 14C-DODMAC equilibrated in the test waters for 13 d prior to introducing the fish into the 30-liter glass test chambers. The 1 15 fish in the two exposure aquaria and the
50 fish in the two control tanks were fed trout chow daily during testing.
Each study consisted of a 49-d exposure phase followed by a depuration phase that ranged from 21 to 35 d. During both phases, edible (fillets) and inedible (viscera) tissues of five fish were analyzed in duplicate for total radioactivity at least once a week. At the end of 49 d, the remaining fish were transferred to dilution water containing no cationic surfactant to initiate the depuration phase. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated as the ratio of the mean concentration of DODMAC (based on total I4C activity) in fish tissue to the mean concentration of DODMAC measured in the respective test water.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
20 µg/L

Results and discussion

Bioaccumulation factoropen allclose all
13 L/kg
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
49 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: environment / dose:23 µg/L - River water
32 L/kg
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
14 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: environment / dose:20 µg/L - Well water
other: 93% of the test item was depurated after 14d
Depuration time (DT):
14 d

Any other information on results incl. tables

Bioconcentration of DODMAC by bluegill varied with the tissue analyzed and with the dilution water used in the test (Table 6).

Bluegill exposed to a mean-measured concentration of 20 (+ 1 SD = 10) µg/L DODMAC in well water and to an average 23 (k 12) µg/L DODMAC in Town River water did not concentrate the surfactant in edible tissue (fillets) to any significant degree. On the other hand, residues were measured in inedible tissue (viscera) of fish in both test waters.

Mean BCF in inedible tissues of fish in well water and river water were 256 and 94, respectively. These BCF values are based on

the ratio of the mean I4C residues in fish to the mean-measured concentrations in the waters over days 14 to 49 of the exposure period (time of steady state). During this time period, the residues averaged 4,100 (well water) and 1,700 (river water) µg/kg, and the mean DODMAC levels in the well and river waters were 16 and 18 µg/L, respectively. Bluegill, after being transferred to well water containing no DODMAC, eliminated 93% of the residues in inedible tissues after 14 d.

Whole body BCF were estimated to be 32 (well water) and 13 (river water). Based on estimated residues in whole body and in inedible tissues, bluegill concentrated DODMAC in well water about three times more than in river water.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
The BCF bluegill for the test item in river water is very low (13 L/kg wwt) and in well water slighly higher (32 L/kg wwt). The BCF river water of 13 L/kg wwt is used in the EU Risk Assessment DODMAC (EU, 2002).
Executive summary:

Lepomis macrochirus was exposed to 14C-DODMAC for 49 days in a continuous flow-through system in river water and laboratory water with mean concentrations in the test period of 18 μg/l and 16 μg/l respectively (no solvent carrier, Lewis & Wee, 1983). The river water was sampled at Town River, Massachusetts, and contained 2-84 mg/l suspended solids, 0.04-0.59 mg/l methylene blue active substances - MBAS and 10-15 mg/l disulfine blue active substances -DBAS (pH = 6.4-7.7, total hardness = 14-38 mg/l CaCO3). In river water BCFs of 13 l/kg in the whole body and 94 in the inedible tissue (viscera) were estimated based on measured concentrations. When laboratory water was used the respective BCFs were 32 and 256 l/kg. In both waters DODMAC did not concentrate to a significant degree in edible tissue (BCF of the fillets < 5 l/kg). In a depuration phase in well water 93% of the accumulated radioactivity was eliminated from the inedible tissues after 14 days.

Based on these test data it can be concluded that DODMAC is not bioconcentrating in fish.