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Environmental fate & pathways

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One experimental study according to OECD 301B confirmed that ethylene diformate (CAS 629-15-2) is readily biodegradable according to the OECD criteria (85% biodegradation after 14 d). Therefore, persistency in the environment is not expected since the substance will be rapidly and ultimately degraded in the environment including sewage treatment plants (Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7b; ECHA, 2012). The test substance is susceptible to undergo abiotic hydrolysis. Reliable QSAR calculations (HYDROWIN v2.00) resulted in DT50 values of 1.24 d at pH 7 and 2.98 h at pH 8. Further analytical investigations in the available ecotoxicological studies resulted in DT50 values of 4 h in standard algae medium (OECD 201; Vryenhoef, 2012) and 11 h in standard daphnia medium (OECD 202; Vryenhoef, 2012) confirming the result from the QSAR calculations. Considering the high water solubility (200 g/L) and the low potential for adsorption to organic soil and sediment particles (log Koc: 0.046 - 0.41, KOCWIN v2.00), the main compartment for environmental distribution is expected to be the surface water. However, persistency in this compartment can be excluded considering the potential of the substance to undergo rapid hydrolysis, and its ready biodegradability. The vapour pressure reported for ethylene diformate, 172 Pa, indicates a potential of the substance for volatilization into air. Evaporation from the water phase into air is nevertheless not expected based on the low Henry’s Law constant (< 1 Pa m³/mole (HENRYWIN v3.20); Müller, 2011). However, if released into air, the substance is susceptible to indirect photodegradation by reaction with OH-radicals with a DT50 value of 104.74 h (AOPWIN v1.92). Therefore, significant accumulation in air and the subsequent transport to other environmental compartments is not anticipated. Furthermore, ethylene diformate is not listed in Annex I of Regulation (EC) 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer and does not belong to the greenhouse gases listed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IPCC/TEAP Special Report, 2005. This substance is thus of no concern for the air compartment. The potential for bioaccumulation of ethylene diformate is assumed to be low based on the low log Kow of -0.69.