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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

42d NOEC (Pimephales promelas; mortality and growth) >= 1.357 mg/L (measured concentration)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
1.357 mg/L

Additional information

Since no reliable chronic fish test is available for C12-14AS MEA (CAS 90583-16-7), a read-across to other structurally related category members was conducted in accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5. Read-across data from C12AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) and C14-15AS Na (CAS 68081-98-1) were used. Toxicity of alkyl sulfates is dependent on the carbon chain length and the influence of the counter ion can be neglected.

A 42-day flow-through study with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) examining the toxic effect of CAS 151-21-3 is available (Belanger et al. 1995). Juvenile mortality and juvenile growth were determined in a non-GLP test after exposure to five concentrations up to 1.357 mg/L (measured concentration, equal to 2.1 mg/L nominal). Since no adverse effects were observed on fish survival and body weight, the NOEC value was determined as equal as or highen than 1.357 mg/L (measured concentration). The toxicity pattern observed for the alkyl sulfate category confirms that the toxic effects increase with the increasing carbon chain, the most toxic being C14-15.

In two further studies fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C14 -15AS Na (CAS 68081-98-1) which is considered to be the worst case mixture for the whole alkyl sulfate category. In the non-GLP study of Sousa (1987), which was conducted according to a protocol equivalent to OECD Guideline 210, fathead minnow was exposed to C14-15AS over 34 days in a flow-through system. The highest test concentration was 6.0 mg a.i./L (nominal concentration) equal to 4.3 mg a.i./L (measured concentration). The early-life stage test resulted in the lowest NOEC-value of 0.11 mg a.i./L (measured concentration) for larvae survival. Although the proportion of C14 and C15 carbon chains in the tested mixture was not specified, it can be expected that the toxicity of this substance is much higher than of C12-14AS MEA (CAS 90583-16-7). C12-14AS MEA contains on average 65% of C12 and 35% of C14 chains, the content of chains above C14 is lower than 5%.

This result by Sousa corresponds well with the NOEC-value determined in a GLP-study of Versteeg and Rawlings (1997). In this test fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed with the same C14-15AS Na mixture (56% C14 and 44% C15) in an outdoor flow-through system over 35 days. The exposure method is described as equivalent to OECD 53, guidance on simulated freshwater lentic field tests. The resulting NOEC-value is reported to be 0.371 mg/L for growth (length and weight). Similarly as in the previous case, the chronic toxicity of the C14-15AS Na mixture to fish will be higher than of C12-14AS MEA (CAS 90583-16-7).