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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

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No data on toxicokinetics, metabolism and distribution are available for alcohols, C6 -C24 and C6 -C24 unsatured, dist. residues (CAS 102242-48-8). The complex residue results from the vacuum distillation of C6-24 and C6-24 unsatd. fatty alcohols which is derived from hydrogenation of C6-24 and C6-24 unsatd. fatty acids methyl esters. It consists predominantly of satd. and unsatd. fatty alcohols having carbon numbers greater than C18, dimerization products, and long chain esters having carbon numbers greater than 32. Thus the conduct of toxicokinetics, metabolism and distribution studies is considered hardly feasible due to the complex UVCB-composition of the substance.

However, an OECD SIDS report on long chain alcohols dated 2006 is available which had been submitted by the Global ICCA Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. In this report, toxicokinetics, metabolism and distribution aspects of long chain alcohols have been discussed. In our opinion, the data presented in the SIDS document can be used for application to the alcohols, C6 -C24 and C6 -C24 unsatured, dist. residues (CAS 102242-48-8), and therefore, they were summarised as follows:

Aliphatic alcohols are expected to be absorbed by all common routes of exposure. Iwata and coworkers (Iwata, Y. et al., Cosmet. Toiletries 102(2):53-68, 1987) had compared in vitro skin permeation and dermal absorption of aliphatic alcohols in hairless mice; the results of their study revealed an inverse relationship between absorption potential and chain length, implying that a higher absorption potential is expected for shorter chain alcohols.

The initial step in the mammalian metabolism of primary alcohols is the oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid, with the corresponding aldehyde being a transient intermediate. The carboxylic acids are then degraded via acyl-CoA intermediates by the mitochondrial β-oxidation process.

An alternative metabolic pathway for aliphatic acids involves microsomal degradation followed by β-oxidation. According to Kamil et al. (Biochem 53:129-136, 1953), a small fraction of the aliphatic alcohols may be eliminated unchanged or as glucuronide conjugate.

The acids formed from the longer chained aliphatic alcohols can also enter the lipid biosynthesis and may be incorporated in phospholipids and neutral lipids, as evidenced by the studies of Bandi et al. (FEBS Letters 12(4): 217-220, 1971a, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 239:357-367, 1971 b) and Mukherjee et al. (Eur. J. Biochem. 107:289-294, 1980),

Similar to the dermal absorption potential, it is expected that orally administered aliphatic alcohols also show a chain-length dependant potential for gastro-intestinal absorption, with shorter chain aliphatic alcohols having a higher absorption potential than longer chain alcohols. With regards to the blood-brain barrier a chain-length dependant absorption potential exists with the lower aliphatic alcohols and acids more readily being taken up than aliphatic alcohols/acids of longer chain-length (Gelman, R.A, Nutr. Metabol. 18: 169-175, 1975). Taking into account the efficient biotransformation of the alcohols and the physico-chemical properties of the corresponding carboxylic acids the potential for elimination into breast milk is considered to be low.

The long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids are efficiently eliminated and aliphatic alcohols are therefore not expected to have a tissue retention or bioaccumulation potential (Bevan C., Patty’s Toxicology, fifth Ed.(6), 2001. E. Bingham, B. Cohrssen and C.H. Powell, eds. J. Wiley & Sons, New York., 2001).

Longer chained aliphatic alcohols may enter common lipid biosynthesis pathways and will be indistinguishable from the lipids derived from other sources such as dietary glycerides (Kabir, Y. & Kimura, S., Ann. Nutr. Metab. 37:33-38, 1993; Ann. Nutr. Metab. 37:33-38, 1995a; Ann. Nutr. Metab. 37:33-38, 1995b).

In summary, long chained alcohols are generally highly efficiently metabolised and show only limited retention and bioaccumulation for the parent alcohols and their biotransformation products.