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Toxicological information

Basic toxicokinetics

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics
Type of information:
not specified
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data from handbook or data collection

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Amino acids from chemical group 34, Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1
Author:
AFC (EFSA)
Year:
2008
Bibliographic source:
The EFSA Journal, 790, 1-51

Materials and methods

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
L-cysteine
EC Number:
200-158-2
EC Name:
L-cysteine
Cas Number:
52-90-4
Molecular formula:
C3H7NO2S
IUPAC Name:
L-cysteine

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
L-Cysteine is the central compound in sulfur metabolism in the human body. In proteins the formation of disulfide bonds between the thiol groups of cysteine plays an important role for tertiary structure and enzymatic activity, Cysteine is however always incorporated in the polypeptide chain as cysteine.
L-Cysteine is degraded to pyruvate in two steps, one is removal of sulphur and the other is a transamination. Cysteine can be metabolised to form taurine and carbon dioxide through the cysteinsulfinate pathway, where the initial step is oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate. This step is catalysed by cysteine dioxygenase. Cysteine sulfinate may then be decarboxylated to form taurine or it may be metabolised via the putative intermediate beta-sulfinylpyruvate to pyruvate and sulfite and then to carbondioxide and sulfate (Stipanuk, 1986). D-Cysteine is not metabolised to taurine (Cavallini et al., 1958; Krijgsheld et al., 1981).