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Description of key information

A study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of the read-across substance bisamide (UVCB) in rats according to OECD Guideline 436 and EU Method B.1 tris in compliance with GLP. The test substance was administered at 300 and 2,000 mg/kg bw once by oral route (gavage) to three groups of three fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats under a dosage-volume of 10 mL/kg. The test substance was prepared in a 0.5% solution of methylcellulose. Each animal was observed at least once a day for mortality and clinical signs for 15 d. Body weight was recorded on Day 1 and then on Days 8 and 15. Upon completion of the observation period, the animals were sacrificed and then submitted for a macroscopic examination. No unscheduled deaths occurred during the study and no clinical signs were observed in any animals. A trend to a slightly lower mean body weight gain was noted in females at 2,000 mg/kg bw when compared to historical control data. There were no macroscopic findings. Under the study conditions, the oral LD50 of the test substance was considered to be > 2,000 mg/kg bw in rats (Duclos, 2012).

A further study was carried out to evaluate the acute inhalation toxicity of the read-across substance bisamide (UVCB) in rats according to US EPA OPPTS 870.1300 and OECD Guideline 436 in compliance with GLP. A group of six CRL:(WI) Wistar strain rats (three males and three females) were exposed to an aerosol atmosphere of the test substance at mean achieved concentration of 5.05 mg/L (i.e. 5,050 mg/m3). The animals were exposed for 4 h using a nose-only system, followed by a 14 d observation period. Except for few clinical signs, no mortality or changes in body weight or macroscopic findings were observed in the animals. Under the study conditions, the 4 h inhalation LC50 value of the test substance was considered to be > 5,050 mg/m3(Nagy, 2012).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 25 July 2012 to 21 September 2012
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read across study hence maximum reliability rating of 2 assigned according to ECHA guidance.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 423 (Acute Oral toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.1 tris (Acute Oral Toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Test type:
acute toxic class method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Janvier, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France.
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 8 weeks old on the day of treatment
- Mean body weight at study initiation: 207 g (range: 191 g to 225 g)
- Fasting period before study: Yes, fasted overnight before treatment. Food was given approximately 4 h after administration of the test substance.
- Housing: The animals were housed by three from the same group in polycarbonate cages with stainless steel lids
- Diet: SSNIFF R/M-H pelleted diet (free access)
- Water: Tap water filtered with a 0.22 µm filter (free access)
- Acclimation period: At least 5 or 8 d before the treatment.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22 ± 2°C
- Humidity: 50 ± 20%
- Air changes: Approximately 12 cycles/hour of filtered, non-recycled air
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 h/12 h.

IN-LIFE DATES: 07 August 2012 to 05 September 2012.

DEVIATION: The temperature recorded in the animal room was sometimes outside of the target ranges specified in the study plan. However, this deviation was considered not to have compromised the validity or integrity of the study.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 0.5% methylcellulose aqueous
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
The solubility assay first started at the concentration of 200 mg/mL, and the first choice vehicle was drinking water treated by reverse osmosis.
As heterogeneous suspension at 200 mg/mL was obtained with drinking water treated by reverse osmosis, the test substance was tested with 0.5% methylcellulose aqueous solution.
A homogenous suspension was obtained at the concentration of 200 mg/mL in 0.5% methylcellulose aqueous solution.

DOSAGE PREPARATION (if unusual): The test substance was administered as a homogeneous suspension in the vehicle. The test substance was ground to a fine powder, using a mortar and pestle, and then mixed with the required quantity of vehicle.
Dose formulations preparations were prepared by the CiToxLAB France Pharmacy extemporaneously on the day of each administration.
The dose formulations were stored at room temperature and delivered to the study room in brown flasks.

CLASS METHOD (if applicable):
- Rationale for the selection of the starting dose:
The starting dose-level was selected since no relevant toxicity data were available for the estimation of a lethal dose-level and any existing data were taken into account by the Sponsor, the starting dose level was 300 mg/kg for ethical reasons.
After treatment at the starting dose-level, the next higher dose-level of 2,000 mg/kg was tested.

ADMINISTRATION:
The dose formulations were administered once by gavage, using a plastic syringe fitted with a plastic gavage tube. The quantity of dose formulation administered to each animal was adjusted according to the body weight recorded on the day of dose administration.
A constant dosage-volume of 10 mL/kg was used. The dose formulations will be stirred continuously throughout the dosing procedure.
Doses:
300 and 2000 mg/kg bw.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
3 females per treatment step.
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 d
- Clinical observations: At least once during the first 30 minutes, periodically during the first 4 h, then once a day, at approximately same time.
- Morbidity and mortality: Frequently during the hours following administration, then at least once a day until the end of the observation period, including weekends and public holidays.
- Body weight: Just before treatment on Day 1; then on Days 8 and 15.
- Necropsy of survivors performed: Yes (macroscopic). The main organs included digestive tract, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen and any other organs with obvious abnormalities. All gross observations were recorded individually for each animal.
Key result
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Mortality:
No unscheduled deaths occurred during the study.
Clinical signs:
No clinical signs were observed in any animals.
Body weight:
A trend to a slightly lower mean body weight gain was noted in females given the test substance at 2,000 mg/kg bw between Days 1 and 15: -14% when compared to CiToxLAB France historical control data. This resulted from a lower mean body weight gain of 25% and 45% recorded between Days 8 and 15 for the first and the confirmatory assays, respectively, when compared to historical control data.
A lower mean body weight gain (25%) was observed in females treated at 300 mg/kg between Days 8 and 15 when compared to historical control data, but no difference was observed between Days 1 and 15.
Gross pathology:
There were no macroscopic post-mortem findings.
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the oral LD50 of the test substance was considered to be >2,000 mg/kg bw in rats. Therefore, the test substance is not classified as toxic by oral route according to the criteria of EU CLP Regulation (1272/2008/EEC).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of the test substance in rats according to the OECD Guideline 436 and EU Method B.1 tris, in compliance with GLP.

The test substance was administered at 300 and 2,000 mg/kg bw once by oral route (gavage) to three groups of three fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats under a dosage-volume of 10 mL/kg. The test substance was prepared in a 0.5% solution of methylcellulose. Each animal was observed at least once a day for mortality and clinical signs for 15 d. Body weight was recorded on Day 1 and then on Days 8 and 15. On completion of the observation period, the animals were sacrificed and then submitted for a macroscopic post-mortem examination. No tissues were preserved.

 

No unscheduled deaths occurred during the study and no clinical signs were observed in any animals. A trend to a slightly lower mean body weight gain was noted in females given the test substance at 2,000 mg/kg, when compared to historical control data. There were no macroscopic post-mortem findings.

 

Under the study conditions, the oral LD50of the test substance was considered to be >2,000 mg/kg bw in rats. Therefore, the test substance is not classified as toxic by oral route according to the criteria of EU CLP Regulation (1272/2008/EEC).

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
The information requirements for this tonnage band is sufficiently met with the available data.

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 04 Sept 2012 to 18 Sept 2012
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read across study hence maximum reliability rating of 2 assigned according to ECHA guidance.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 436 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Acute Toxic Class Method)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.1300 (Acute inhalation toxicity)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Test type:
acute toxic class method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Research Models and Services, Germany GmbH, Sandhofer Weg 7, D-97633 Sulzfeld
- Age at study initiation: Young adult rats, 10-11 weeks old
- Weight at study initiation: 244 to 428 g (males: 405-428 g; females: 244-259g)
- Housing: Standard housing conditions
- Bedding: Lignocel bedding for laboratory animals was available to animals during the study
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Ssniff SM R/M-Z+H “Autoclavable Complete Feed for Rats and Mice – Breeding and Maintenance" ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 26 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22±3 °C
- Humidity: 30–70 %
- Air changes: 15-20 air exchanges/h
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 h dark/12 h light

Deviation: The temperature (22±3ºC) and the humidity (30–70%) values deviated from the required range during the acclimation period in the animal room. However, these deviations had no effect on the purpose and integrity of the study.
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
air
Details on inhalation exposure:
Atmosphere generation:
The test substance formulation was aerosolised using a rotating brush powder disperser (Palas GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany) located at the top of the exposure chamber and compressed air. The compressed air was passed through a respiratory quality filter train and condensate separator prior to use. The dust aerosol produced was then ducted to the exposure system using suitable tubing and various devices may have been included between the generation and exposure systems in order to increase the proportion of the aerosol in the target particle size range.

Animal exposure system
The animals were exposed, nose-only, to an atmosphere of the test substance using a TSE Rodent Exposure System (TSE Systems GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany). This system comprises of two, concentric anodised aluminium chambers and a computer control system incorporating pressure detectors and mass flow controllers.
Fresh aerosol from the generation system was constantly supplied to the inner plenum (distribution chamber) of the exposure system from where, under positive pressure, it was distributed to the individual exposure ports. The animals were held in polycarbonate restraint tubes located around the chamber which allowed only the animal’s nares to enter the exposure port. After passing through the animal’s breathing zone, used aerosol entered the outer cylinder from where it was exhausted through a suitable filter system. Atmosphere generation was therefore dynamic.
Airflows and relative pressures within the system were constantly monitored and controlled by the computer system thus ensuring a uniform distribution and constant flow of fresh aerosol to each exposure port (breathing zone). The flow of air through each port was at least 0.7 L/min. This flow rate was considered adequate to minimize re-breathing of the test atmosphere as it is about twice the respiratory minute volume of a rat.
Homogeneity of the test atmosphere within the test chamber and amongst the exposure ports was not specifically determined during this study. However, chambers of this design have been fully validated and have shown to produce evenly distributed atmospheres in the animals’ breathing zones (Pauluhn, 1994).

Exposure procedure:
Each rat was individually held in a tapered, polycarbonate restraining tube fitted onto a single tier of the exposure chamber. Only the nose of each animal was exposed to the test atmosphere.
Following an equilibration period of at least the theoretical chamber equilibration time (T99) (Silver, 1946), a group of six rats (three male and three female) was exposed to an atmosphere of the test material for a period of 4 h. A target concentration of 5 mg/L was used for the exposure. As no deaths occurred and the mean achieved concentration was 101 % of target, no further data were required.


Exposure Monitoring:

Test atmosphere concentrations:
The test atmosphere was sampled at regular intervals during the exposure period. Samples were taken from an unoccupied exposure port (representing the animal’s breathing zone) by pulling a suitable, known volume of test atmosphere through weighed GF10 glass fibre filters (Whatman GmbH, Hahnestraße 3 – D-37586 Dassel, Germany). The difference in the pre- and post-sampling weights, divided by the volume of atmosphere sampled, was equal to the actual achieved test atmosphere concentration.
The nominal concentration was calculated by dividing the mass of test substance disseminated into the chamber by the total volume of air that went through the chamber during the same period.

Particle size analysis:
The particle size of the test atmosphere was determined three times during the exposure period using a 7-stage impactor of Mercer style (TSE Systems GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany). The total amount collected for each stage was used to determine the cumulative amount below each cut-off point size. In this way, the proportion (%) of aerosol less than 0.55, 0.96, 1.55, 2.11, 3.56, 6.66 and 10.55 μm was calculated.
From these data, using software supplied with the impactor (TSE Systems GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany), the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD), and Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD) were calculated. In addition, the proportion (%) of aerosol less than 4μm (considered to be the inhalable portion) was determined.

Deviation: The geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the generated aerosol during the animal exposure was greater than 4 μm. However, these deviations had no effect on the purpose and integrity of the study.
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Concentrations:
Nominal concentration: 6.67 mg/L
Mean achieved: 5.05 mg/L
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Three/sex/dose
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 d

OBSERVATIONS:
- Morbidity/Mortality: Animals were checked hourly during exposure, 1 h after exposure and twice daily (early and late in the working day) during the 14-d observation period for morbidity and/or mortality.

- Clinical Signs: All animals were observed for clinical signs at hourly intervals during exposure, as soon as practically possible following removal from restraint at the end of exposure, 1 h after exposure and subsequently once daily for 14 d.

- Bodyweight: Individual bodyweights were recorded prior to treatment on the day of exposure (Day 0) and on Days 1, 3, 7 and 14.

- Necropsy: At the end of the 14-d observation period, the animals were euthanised by exsanguination under anaesthesia (intra-peritoneal injection of pentobarbital solution) and gross macroscopic examination was performed. All animals were subject to a gross necropsy which included a detailed examination of the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Special attention was given to the respiratory tract for macroscopic signs of irritancy or local toxicity.
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
> 5.05 mg/L air
Based on:
other: mean achieved concentration
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: (i.e., >5,050 mg/m3)
Mortality:
No mortality was observed in the group of six rats.
Clinical signs:
other: Wet fur and fur staining were commonly recorded on the day of exposure. These observations were considered to be related to the restraint and exposure procedures and, in isolation, were considered not to be biologically significant. Laboured and noisy re
Body weight:
Normal bodyweight gain was noted during the observation period for all animals.
Gross pathology:
None of the six animals were associated with any macroscopic findings.
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 4-h inhalation LC50 value of the test substance was considered to be >5050 mg/m3. Therefore, the test substance is not classified as toxic by inhalation route according to the criteria of EU CLP Regulation (1272/2008/EEC).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the acute inhalation toxicity of the test substance in rats according to the US EPA OPPTS 870.1300 and OECD Guideline 436; in compliance with GLP.

A group of six CRL: (WI) Wistar strain rats (three males and three females) were exposed to an aerosol atmosphere of the test substance at mean achieved concentration of 5.05 mg/L (i.e., 5,050 mg/m3). The animals were exposed for 4 h using a nose-only exposure system, followed by a 14 d observation period.

Except for few clinical signs, no mortality or changes in body weight or macroscopic findings were observed in the group of six rats.

Under the study conditions, the 4-h inhalation LC50 value of the test substance was considered to be >5,050 mg/m3. Therefore, the test substance is not classified as toxic by inhalation route according to the criteria of EU CLP Regulation (1272/2008/EEC).

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Value:
5 050 mg/m³
Quality of whole database:
The information requirements for this tonnage band is sufficiently met with the available data.

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Quality of whole database:
The information requirements for this tonnage band is sufficiently met with the available data.

Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the available data there is no justification for classification.