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Comprehensive CAS number search in internal databases as well as external databases, e.g. Toxbio, Embase, XToxline, RTECS, HSDB

Z CAS substance Title (Ti) Test sytem
(Organism - ORGN)
application
(Route - RTE)
test concentration
(Dose - DOSE)
toxicity
(Effect - EFF)
reference (so)  (Source - SO) no. (Duration - DUR)    Summary (AB)
1 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rabbit   skin  10 mg Severe AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal  (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19-   1958- AIHAAP 23,95,1962 24H open    
2 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rat      oral       LD50 320 mg/kg       AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal  (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19-   1958-VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov" (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia,1990. AIHAAP 23,95,1962              
3 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rat      inhalation LCLo 500 ppm         AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal  (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19-   1958-VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov" (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia,1990. AIHAAP 23,95,1962 4H        
4 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rabbit   skin       LD50 1580 uL/kg       AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal  (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19-   1958-VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov" (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia,1990. AIHAAP 23,95,1962             
5 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   mouse    inhalation LC50 3100 mg/m3     AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal  (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19-   1958-VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov" (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia,1990. VCVGH* -,477,1990   2H        
6 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene       salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA100 Ames test   is mutagenic de lorenzo f et al; cancer res 37: 1915-7 (1977)      
7 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rat oral LD50 320 mg/kg   Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 1126      
8 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   rabbit skin LD50  1580 mg/kg   Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 1126      
9 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene Subchronic inhalation toxicity and reproductive assessment in rats of three chlorinated propenes. rats nasal 0, 1, 5 or 15 ppm   Johannsen, F. R.; Levinskas, G. J.; RUsch, G. M.; Schroeder, R. G. (Monsanto Co., 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63167, USA) . J. Toxicol. Environ. Health (1991) 33(3), 291-302 CODEN: JTEHD6 ISSN: 0098-4108     ANSWER 4 OF 9:
Groups of 15 male and 15 female Sprague-Dawleyratswere exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 15 ppm of2,3-dichloropropene (I), 1,2,3-trichloropropene (I), or 1,1,2, 3-tetrachloropropene (III) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks.Nasal irritation was observed in rats exposed to the highest dose of Iand II, and small decreases body weight of females exposed to 15 ppm II. Reproductive toxicity was assessed in rats exposed to 0, 1 or 5 ppm for 10 weeks premating period and the first 14 days after gestation. Mating, pregnancy and fertility studies indicated no significant effects, although female mating and pregnancy indices were lower than expected in I-treated rats.
10 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene 2,3-Dichloropropene         Anon. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials Report (1986), 6(4), 63-70, CODEN: DPIRDU; ISSN: 0270-3777     ANSWER 2 OF 54: 
A review with many refs. on 2,3dichloropropene [78-88-6] as a hazardous material.
11 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene Subchronic inhalation toxicity and reproductive assessment in rats of three chlorinated propenes rat       Johannsen, Frederick R.; Levinskas, G. J.; Rusch, G. M.; Schroeder, R. E.  - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (1991), 33(3), 291-302 CODEN: JTEHD6; ISSN: 0098-4108     ANSWER 21 OF 54 
Rats were exposed to 1 of 3 chloropropene (2,3-Di = DCP; 1,2,3-Tri = TRCP; and 1,1,2,3-tetra = TECP) vapors to provide information on repeated exposures and the potential for reproductive impairment by the most likely route of occupational exposure. Target exposure concns. were 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm, 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 13 wk. Signs of nasal irritation were noted in rats exposed to 15 ppm of either DCP or TRCP but not TECP. An increase (.apprx.15%) in spleen weight, with no corresponding histopathol. or clin. findings, was observed in 15 ppm DCP-treated male rats. No other effects considered related to treatment were observed following exposure to any of the 3 chlorinated propenes. Addnl. groups of 10 male and 20 female rats were exposed to DCP, TRCP, or TECP vapors at target concns. of 0, 1, or 5 ppm for 6 h/day, 5 d/wk for a 10-wk premating period, a mating period, and the first 14 days (females only) of gestation. Females were allowed to deliver litters and the offspring were evaluated during a 21-day lactation period. Mating, pregnancy, and fertility indexes were generally comparable among all test groups, although female mating and pregnancy indexes of both DCP-treated females were lower than expected in the regular and postrecovery reproduction phase. No effects were seen on pup survival, sex distribution, body wts., organ wts., and ratios. A modest reduction in pup body wts. was observed following TECP exposure but was attributed to large litter size. No treatment-related effects were seen following necropsy of adults or weanlings, nor were such effects noted following microscopic evaluation of gonads from parental animals.
12 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene Salmonella mutagenicity tests: IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters       Zeiger, Errol; Anderson, Beth; Haworth, Steve; Lawlor, Timothy; Mortelmans, Kristien - Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis (1988), 11(Suppl. 12), 1-157 CODEN: EMMUEG; ISSN: 0893-6692     ANSWER 53 OF 54
Three hundred chemical were tested for mutagenicity, under code, in S. typhimurium, using a preincubation protocol. All tests were performed in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. The results and data from these tests are presented. 
13 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM;   STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA98; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV.  RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH  METHOD STANDARD PLATE                     DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL)  RES RESULT NEGATIVE                  SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT NEGATIVE                 
14 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1537; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT NEGATIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT NEGATIVE
15 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1538; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT NEGATIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT NEGATIVE
16 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE     RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT, IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
17 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1535; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE     RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT, IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
18 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1978; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE                RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT, IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
19 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT POSITIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT POSITIVE
20 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1535; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, S-9, AROCLOR 1254; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT POSITIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT POSITIVE
21 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA98; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT POSITIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT POSITIVE
22 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT POSITIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT POSITIVE
23 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1535; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 10-1000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: ETHANOL) RES RESULT POSITIVE SHORT-TERM TEST PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY, NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, MS. ELLEN ZAIKA, ASSISTANT PROJECT OFFICER , p. Y85     RES RESULT POSITIVE
24 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE     RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT,IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
25 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA1535; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE     RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT,IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
26 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATOR TA1978; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE     RES RESULT POSITIVE DE LORENZO,F, DEGL 'INNOCENT,IS, RUOCCO,A, SILENGO,L AND CORTESE,R, MUTAGENICITY OF; PESTICIDES CONTAINING 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CANCER RES. 37:1915-1917, 1977     RES RESULT POSITIVE
27 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. NONE; METH METHOD PREINCUBATION   DOS DOSE 3-333 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: DMSO) RES RESULT POSITIVE ZEIGER,E, ANDERSON,B, HAWORTH,S, LAWLOR,T AND MORTELMANS,K, SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY TESTS: IV. RESULTS FROM THE TESTING OF 300 CHEMICALS, ENVIRON. MOL. MUTAGEN. 11(SUPPL.12):1-158, 1988     RES RESULT POSITIVE
28   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA100; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. RAT, LIVER, MICROSOMES, PHENOBARBITAL; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 0-0.4 UMOL/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: DMSO) RES RESULT NEGATIVE LAG,M, OMICHINSKI,JG, DYBING,E, NELSON,SD AND SODERLUND,EJ, MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF HALOGENATED PROPANES AND PROPENES: EFFECT OF BROMINE AND CHLORINE POSITIONING, CHEM.-BIOL. INTERACT. 93(1):73-84, 1994     RES RESULT NEGATIVE
29 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene   TSY TEST SYSTEM AMES SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; STIN STRAIN/INDICATORTA102; MAC METABOLIC ACTIV. S-9; METH METHOD STANDARD PLATE   DOS DOSE 156-5000 UG/PLATE (TEST MATERIAL SOLVENT: DMSO) RES RESULT NEGATIVE WATANABE,K, SAKAMOTO,K AND SASAKI,T, COMPARISONS ON CHEMICALLY-INDUCED MUTATION AMONG FOUR STRAINS, SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM TA102 AND TA2638, AND ESCHERICHIA COLI WP2/PKM101 AND WP2 UVRA/PKM101: COLLABORATIVE STUDY II, MUTAT. RES. 412(1):17-31, 1998     RES RESULT NEGATIVE
30 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene USEPA STATUS REPORT: 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE WITH COVER LETTER DATED 031290 UT: U S EPA; 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE; HEALTH EFFECTS; REPRODUCTION/FERTILITY --- EFFECTS; MAMMALS; RATS; INHALATION; GENOTOXICITY; CHROMOSOMAL --- EFFECTS; ORAL; GAVAGE; TERATOGENICITY       EPA/OTS /2000/ Doc #8EHQ-0290-0892       
31 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene INITIAL SUBMISSION: TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF: 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (DOW SI 958333) (FINAL REPORT) WITH COVER LETTER DATED 040692 UT: MONSANTO AGRIC CO; 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE; HEALTH EFFECTS; ACUTE --- TOXICITY; MAMMALS; RATS; ORAL; GAVAGE; RABBITS; DERMAL; PRIMARY --- DERMAL IRRITATION; PRIMARY EYE IRRITATION; INHALATION       EPA/OTS /1992/ Doc #88-920001816       
32 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene  A ONE-GENERATION REPRODUCTION FERTILITY STUDY ON 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE IN RATS WITH ATTACHED STUDIES, COVER SHEETS AND LETTER DATED 022190 UT: MONSANTO CO; 2,3-DICHLOROPROPENE; HEALTH EFFECTS --- REPRODUCTION/FERTILITY EFFECTS; MAMMALS; RATS; INHALATION --- GENOTOXICITY; CHROMOSOMAL EFFECTS; ORAL; GAVAGE; TERATOGENICITY       EPA/OTS /1990/ Doc #88-900000064       
33 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene Subchronic inhalation toxicity and reproductive assessment in rats of three chlorinated propenes. rats ---
CT: ADMINISTRATION, INHALATION; ALLYL COMPOUNDS/administration & dosage; ALLYL COMPOUNDS/*toxicity; ANIMALS; ATMOSPHERE EXPOSURE CHAMBERS; BODY WEIGHT/drug effects; FEMALE; FERTILITY/drug effects; FETAL DEATH/chemically induced; HYDROCARBONS, CHLORINATED/administration & dosage; HYDROCARBONS, CHLORINATED/*toxicity; INSECTICIDES/administration & dosage; INSECTICIDES/*toxicity; MALE; ORGAN SIZE/drug effects; RATS; RATS, INBRED STRAINS --- CTG: APPLIKATION, INHALATIONS-; ALLYLVERBINDUNGEN/Verabreichung & Dosierung; ALLYLVERBINDUNGEN/*Toxizität; TIER; KLIMAKAMMERN; KÖRPERGEWICHT/Arzneimittelwirkungen; WEIBLICH; FERTILITÄT/Arzneimittelwirkungen; FETALTOD/chemisch hervorgerufen; KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE, CHLORIERTE/Verabreichung & Dosierung; KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE, CHLORIERTE/*Toxizität; INSEKTIZIDE/Verabreichung & Dosierung; INSEKTIZIDE/*Toxizität; MÄNNLICH; ORGANGRÖßE/Arzneimittelwirkungen; RATTUS; RATTEN, INZUCHTSTAMM-
      Journal of toxicology and environmental health; VOL: 33 (3); p. 291-302 /199107     Groups of 15 male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1 of 3 chloropropene (2,3-Di = DCP; 1,2,3-Tri = TRCP; and1,1,2,3-Tetra = TECP) vapors to provide information on repeated exposures and the potential for reproductive impairment by the most likely route of occupational exposure. Target exposure concentrations were 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 13 wk. The following parameters were evaluated: pharmacotoxic signs,survival, body weights, hematology, clinical blood chemistry, urine analysis, gross and histopathology (over 40 tissues/rat), organ weights, and selected weight ratios. Signs of nasal irritation were noted in rats exposed to 15 ppm of either DCP or TRCP but not TECP.Small decreases in overall body weight were observed in female rats exposed to 15 ppm TCP. An increase (approximately 15%) in spleen weight, with no corresponding histopathological or clinicalfindings, was observed in 15 ppm DCP-treated male rats. No othereffects considered related to treatment were observed following exposure to any of the three chlorinated propenes. Additional groupsof 10 male and 20 female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to DCP,TRCP, or TECP vapors at target concentrations of 0, 1, or 5 ppm for6 h/d, 5 d/wk for a 10-wk premating period, a mating period, and the first 14 d (females only) of gestation. Females were allowed to deliver litters and the offspring were evaluated during a 21-d lactation period. Mating, pregnancy, and fertility indices were generally comparable among all test groups, although female matingand pregnancy indices of both DCP-treated females were lower than expected in the regular and postrecovery reproduction phase. No effects were seen on pup survival, sex distribution, body weights,organ weights, and ratios. A modest reduction in pup body weightswas observed following TECP exposure but was attributed to large litter size. No treatment-related effects were seen following necropsy of adults or weanlings, nor were such effects noted following microscopic evaluation of gonads from parental animals.
34 78-88-6 2,3-Dichloropropene INDUCTION OF UNSCHEDULED DNA SYNTHESIS IN HELA CELLS BY ALLYLIC COMPOUNDS         CANCER LETT; p. 263-269, /1983/ 20