Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2008-09-25 to: 2009-03-13
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Well documented, scientifically sound study conducted in accordance to GLP and OECD guideline 203 with no deviation to the protocol.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
no data
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0 (control), 13, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L; A volume of 10 mL was collected from each control and test substance replicate at 0 and 96 hours and transferred to a culture tube.
- Sampling method: 0.05 mL aliquot of each sample was taken, diluted if necessary with 2% HNO3, capped and shaken to mix.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Room temperature
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: 7.5075 g of sodium tungstate dihydrate was added to a 21-L glass jar and bringing the jar to a volume of 15,000 mL with blended freshwater. Appropriate aliquots of the primary standard were diluted with 15 L of dilution water to prepare final test concentrations of 13, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg total product/L. The control solution consisted only of dilution water.
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Zebrafish
- Source: Osage Catfisheries, Osage Beach, Missouri
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Not specified
- Length at study termination (length definition, mean, range and SD): 28-31 mm; mean 30 ± 1.2 mm (Controls only)
- Weight at study termination (mean and range, SD): 0.194-0.408 g; mean 0.276 ± 0.0664 g (Controls only)
- Feeding during test
- Frequency: Not fed during test, or one day prior

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 5 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Temperature adjusted for test
- Type and amount of food: Salmon starter, flake food, and brine shrimp
- Feeding frequency: Daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality observed in 14 days prior to testing.



Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
140 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
23 ± 1 degrees C
pH:
8.0-8.3 SU
Dissolved oxygen:
6.7-8.3 mg/L (82 to 101% sat)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal- 0 (control), 13, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L.
Mean calculated-
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 21 L glass jars, covered with plastic Petri dishes; 15 L test solution.
- Aeration: None
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 0.18 g fish tissue/L test solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Moderately hard freshwater made with naturally hard well water blended with well water demineralized by reverse osmosis, total hardness of 130-160 mg/L CaCO, passed through a sediment filter prior to use.
- Metals: B-0.415 mg/L, Ca-83.1 mg/L, Mg- 33.1 mg/L, K-7.93 mg/L, Na-32.2 mg/L; all others below DL.
- Pesticides: Below DL
- Alkalinity: 150 mg/L CaCO3
- Conductivity: 328 uS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: None
- Photoperiod: 16h light/ 8h dark, with 30 min simulated dawn and dusk periods
- Light intensity: 542 lux at initiation of the definitive test as measured with a LI COR Model LI-189 light meter equipped with a photometric sensor.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality, 24h

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2x
- Range finding study: Other studies indicated a low potential for toxicity to aquatic organisms; Therefore, a range finding study was not performed. Definitive testing was performed at a level that exceeds the guideline-required maximum, 100 mg/L for this test.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: No mortality in any control or test solution
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 181 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
based on mean calculated concentrations of sodium tungstate
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: No mortality in any control or test solution
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks on result:
other: Lack of mortality and sublethal effects
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 181 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
based on mean calculated concentrations of sodium tungstate
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks on result:
other: Lack of mortality and sublethal effects
Details on results:
Biological Results:
After 96 hours of exposure, there was no mortality in the 0 (control) or any of the test substance treatments. There were no sublethal observations during the exposure. The estimated 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hour LC50 values for zebrafish exposed to sodium tungstate dihydrate were >200 mg/L, the highest concentration tested. Since there was no partial response, the 96-hour slope of the concentrations-response line could not be calculated from the probit analysis. The 96 hour no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 200 mg/L based on the lack of mortality and sublethal effects atthis and lower test substance concentrations.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Estimates of LC50 values and their 95% confidence limits were calculated using the probit method and Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. When the p value for Goodness of Fit was >0.05 and there was no other evidence of questionable convergence, the probit method was selected for reporting. When this criterion was not achieved, the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method was selected for reporting. The no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was determined based on the absence of any mortality or sublethal effects.
Conclusions:
Based on nominal concentrations, the estimated 96 hour LC50 value for zebrafish exposed to sodium tungstate dihydrate was >200 mg/L, the highest concentration tested. The 96 hour slope of the concentrations-response line could not be calculated. The 96-hour no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 200 mg/L, based on the lack of mortality and sublethal effects at this and the lower concentrations.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Guideline study. No analytical confirmation of test concentrations. Few details regarding test solution preparation.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 204 (Fish, Prolonged Toxicity Test: 14-day Study)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
N/A
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Poecilia reticulata
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Guppy
- Strain: No data
- Source: Ward's Natural Science
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): > 4 weeks
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): No data
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): No data
- Method of breeding: purchased
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Tetra Min flakes
- Amount: No data
- Frequency: Not fed during 96 h test, twice daily during 14 day test.


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 4 weeks
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): yes
- Type and amount of food: Tetra Min flakes, ad libitum
- Feeding frequency: twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality 7 days prior to the experiment
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Remarks on exposure duration:
96 h test, followed by up to 14 day test with fish that survived the 96 hour one.
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
23.5 +/- 0.3 deg C
pH:
7.43-8.1 SU
Dissolved oxygen:
3.7-5.49 mg/L
Salinity:
not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal- Control, 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.75, 5.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Plastic 8 L aquaria
- Aeration: none
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): semi-static
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Initial at 96 hours and then fish placed in entirely new aquaria with fresh solution every 4 days.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): N/A
- Biomass loading rate: average 0.37 g/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Local tap water, aged and aerated 3 days before use
- Total organic carbon: No data
- Particulate matter: No data
- Metals: No data
- Pesticides: No data
- Chlorine: No data
- Alkalinity: N/A
- Ca/mg ratio: No data
- Conductivity: 0.399-5.29 mS/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: No data


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No data
- Photoperiod: No data
- Light intensity: No data


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality, 24 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: N/A
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: not specified
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.71 g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.06 other: g W/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: tungsten concentration
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.54 g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.86 other: g W/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: tungsten concentration
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Fish exposed to test substance were slower, and remained predominantly at the bottom of the tank, as compared to controls
- Observations on body length and weight: No data
- Other biological observations: No data
- Mortality of control: No data
- Other adverse effects control: No data
- Abnormal responses: No data
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No data
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No data
Results with reference substance (positive control):
N/A
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values and confidence intervals were calculated individually for each exposure period with the Probit Analysis .Program version 1.5. NOEC and LOEC values were evaluated using ANOVA and one-sided Dunnett's test, Version 1.5. The 5% statistical significance level was accepted for statistical results.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Additional results:

-Wet weight BCF for the test substance was calculated as 0.29 +/- 0.94 L/kg

-Dry weight BCF for the test substance was calculated as 1.57 +/- 0.5 L/kg

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 96 hour LC50 of sodium tungstate to P.reticulata was found to be 3.71 g sodium tungstate/L. The 14 day LC50 was found to be 1.54 g sodium tungstate/L. Confidence intervals were not presented in g/L. The dry weight bioconcentration factor was calculated as 1.57 +/- 0.5 L/kg.
Executive summary:

N/A

Description of key information

The 96-hr LC50 for Danio rerio found in a test conducted according to OECD 203, under GLP standards, and with analytical verification of the test concentrations was >181 mg sodium tungstate/L. This finding was supported by another test conducted with similar methodology, which found a 96-hr LC50 of 3.71 g sodium tungstate/L for Poecilia reticulata.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
3.71 g/L

Additional information