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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

The fish were exposed to water accomodated fractions (WAFs) and the results expressed as loading rates. The reported LL50 values range from 0 >1028 mg/L to >70 g/L. No LC50 could be derived from acute short-term studies as they were only based on loading. The risk assessment was performed using the Petrorisk model.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, aliphatics, ≤2% aromatics was tested on several different species of fish. Four study reports were available and input as endpoint records. Three studies were scientifically reliable according to Klimish (Klimish et al., 1997) scoring (Klimish 1 or 2). The fourth one was scored 4 (unassignable) despite of its scientific value because the test substance was not fully described.


Due to the low and variable solubility of the constituents of the substance in water, most of the studies were conducted with water accommodated fractions (WAFs). Marine fish Turbot (reported as Scophthalmus maximus, presently Psetta maxima) was exposed to Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics. WAFs and no toxic effect/s (recorded as fish immobilization) was obtained with nominal loadings up to 1028 mg/L (Altin, 2002). Studies conducted with freshwater species (Calmels, 1994; Dufresne 2001a and b) lead to similar results. Zebrafish (reported as Brachydanio rerio, presently Danio rerio) exposure to the same substance as in the above turbot experiment was performed using a mixture of acetone and emulsifier Montanox: no mortality was recorded with nominal concentrations up to 250 mg/L. Dufresne (2001a) conducted a study where freshwater fish fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were exposed to Hydrocarbons, C12-C15,n-alkanes, <2% aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C14-C17,n-alkanes, <2% aromatics as WAFs (1 part of test material + 10 parts of dilution water - exposure to 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% WAF) in a semi-static test with renewal of the test medium every 48h. No significant mortality was reported even with the highest concentration (100% WAF), corresponding to 70 mg/L (nominal loading) for Hydrocarbons, C14-C17, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics.


Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, aliphatics, ≤2% aromatics show no acute toxicity towards fish: the toxicity level was never reached in any study despite the high loading level tested. Therefore, in the category approach, the substances are considered to display no acute toxicity to fish.