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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
21 December 1992 and 25 December 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted to GLP in compliance with agreed protocols, with no or minor deviations from standard test guidelines and/or minor methodological deficiencies, which do not affect the quality of the relevant results.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1993
Report date:
1993

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.5 (Acute Toxicity: Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Benzenamine, reaction products with aniline hydrochloride and nitrobenzene
EC Number:
309-912-6
EC Name:
Benzenamine, reaction products with aniline hydrochloride and nitrobenzene
Cas Number:
101357-15-7
Molecular formula:
This is a UVCB substance. See section 1.2 for individual components.
IUPAC Name:
Benzenamine, reaction products with aniline hydrochloride and nitrobenzene
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: David Percival Ltd., Moston, Sandbach, Cheshire, U.K.
- Age at study initiation: 12 - 16 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 2.76 - 3.24 kg
- Housing: individually housed in suspended metal cages
- Diet and water: ad libitum throughout the study
- Acclimation period: minimum 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 17 - 19°C
- Humidity (%): 46 - 54%
- Air changes (per hr): 15/hr
- Photoperiod: 12 hrs dark / 12 hrs light


Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: the left eye remained untreated and was used for control purposes.
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied: A volume of 0.1 ml of the test material, which was found to weigh approximately 41 mg
Duration of treatment / exposure:
The upper and lower lid were held together for about one second immediately after application to prevent loss of the test material. The eye was not washed following application.
Observation period (in vivo):
Assessment of ocular damage/irritation was made approximately 1 hour and 24, 48 and 72 hours following treatment.
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3
Details on study design:
Immediately before the start of the test, both eyes of the provisionally selected test rabbits were examined for evidence of ocular irritation or defect with the aid of a light source from a standard ophthalmoscope. Animals showing evidence of ocular lesions were rejected and replaced.
One rabbit was initially treated. A volume of 0.1 ml of the test material, which was found to weigh approximately 41 mg (as measured by gently compacting the required volume into an adapted syringe) was placed into the conjunctival sac of the right eye, formed by gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. Immediately after administration of the test material, an assessment of the initial pain reaction was made.

After consideration of the ocular responses produced in the first treated animal, two additional animals were treated.
Assessment of ocular damage/irritation was made according to the numerical evaluation given below (from Draize J.H. 1959, Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States, Austin, Texas, "The Appraisal of the Safety of Chemicals in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics").

Any other ocular effects were also noted. Examination of the eye was facilitated by use of the light source from a standard ophthalmoscope.

SCORING SYSTEM: Draize Scale for Ocular Irritation.

1. CONJUNCTIVAE
(A) Redness (refers to palpebral and bulbar conjunctivae excluding cornea and iris)
Vessels normal............................................................................................................................................0
Vessels definitely injected above normal................................................................................................1
More diffuse, deeper crimson red, individual vessels not easily discernible....................................2
Diffuse beefy red.........................................................................................................................................3

(B) Chemosis
No swelling..................................................................................................................................................0
Any swelling above normal (includes nictitating membrane).............................................................1
Obvious swelling with partial eversion of lids.......................................................................................2
Swelling with lids about half closed.........................................................................................................3
Swelling with lids half closed to completely closed...............................................................................4

(C) Discharge
No discharge...............................................................................................................................................0
Any amount different from normal (does not include small amounts observed in inner
canthus of normal animals)......................................................................................................................1
Discharge with moistening of the lids and hairs just adjacent to lids...............................................2
Discharge with moistening of the lids and hairs a considerable area around the eye...................3

THE TOTAL SCORE = (A + B + C) x 2 MAXIMUM TOTAL = 20

2. IRIS

(D) Values
Normal.........................................................................................................................................................0
Folds above normal, congestion, swelling, circumcorneal injection (any or all
of these or combination of any thereof) iris still reacting to light
(sluggish reaction is positive).................................................................................................................1
No reaction to light, haemorrhage, gross destruction (any or all of these)....................................2

THE TOTAL SCORE = D x 5 MAXIMUM TOTAL = 10

3. CORNEA

(E) Degree of Opacity (most dense area used)
No opacity...................................................................................................................................................0
Scattered or diffuse areas, details of iris clearly visible......................................................................1
Easily discernible translucent areas, details of iris slightly obscured..............................................2
Opalescent areas, no details of iris visible, size of pupil barely discernible....................................3
Opaque, iris not discernible through the opacity................................................................................4

(F) Area of Cornea Involved
One quarter (or less) but not zero..........................................................................................................1
Greater than one quarter but less than half...........................................................................................2
Greater than half but less than three quarters......................................................................................3
Greater than three quarters, up to whole area.......................................................................................4

THE TOTAL SCORE = (E x F) x 5 MAXIMUM TOTAL = 80

MAXIMUM TOTAL SCORE POSSIBLE = 110

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
(all animals)
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
0
Reversibility:
other: not applicable
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
(all animals)
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
0
Reversibility:
other: not applicable
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
(all animals)
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
0
Reversibility:
other: not applicable
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
(all animals)
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
0
Reversibility:
other: not applicable
Irritant / corrosive response data:
No corneal or iridial effects were noted during the study. Minimal to moderate conjunctival irritation was noted in all treated eyes one hour after treatment.
No ocular effects were noted 24 hours after treatment.
Other effects:
Residual test material was noted around the treated eye of all animals throughout the study.

Any other information on results incl. tables

INDIVIDUAL SCORES AND INDIVIDUAL TOTAL SCORES FOR OCULAR IRRITATION

Rabbit Number and Sex (Bodyweight kg)

IPR = 2

IPR = 1

IPR = 1

7 Female

(3.14)

6 Female

(3.24)

58 Female

(2.76)

Time After Treatment

1 hr

24 hr

48 hr

72 hr

1 hr

24 hr

48 hr

72 hr

1 hr

24 hr

48 hr

72 hr

CORNEA

E = Degree of Opacity

F = Area of Opacity

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Score (E x F) x 5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

IRIS

D

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Score (D x 5)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CONJUNCTIVAE

A = Redness

B = Chemosis

C = Discharge

 

1

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

1

0

1Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

1

1

2Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

 

0

0

0Re

Score (A + B + C) x 2

2

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

Total Score

2

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

Key: hr = hour(s)             IPR = initial pain reaction              Re = residual test material around the treated eye

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified according to EU criteria.
Conclusions:
The test material produced a maximum group mean score of 4.7 and was classified as a minimal irritant (Class 3 on a 1 to 8 scale) to the rabbit eye according to a modified Kay and Calandra classification system.
Executive summary:

A study was performed to assess the irritancy potential of the test material to the eye of the New Zealand White rabbit. The method used followed that described in the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (1987) No. 405 "Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion".

A single application of the test material to the non-irrigated eye of three rabbits produced minimal to moderate conjunctival irritation. No ocular effects were noted 24 hours after treatment.

The test material produced a maximum group mean score of 4.7 and was classified as a minimal irritant (Class 3 on a 1 to 8 scale) to the rabbit eye according to a modified Kay and Calandra classification system.

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