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Toxicological information

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
This study predates the requirements for good laboratory practice, however the study was considered adequate for this assessment
Species:
mouse
Strain:
other: albino
Sex:
male
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
not specified
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
730 mg/kg bw
Clinical signs:
The target organs for oral toxicity of SEX were the central nervous system, liver and spleen. The majority of death occurred on the first day, and the animals that survived appeared normal within two days
Gross pathology:
Depression followed by hyperexcitability, tremors, paralysis exophtaalmia and clonic followed by tonic convulsions.Pinkness of feet and nose, preening and salivation. Consolidated lungs, pale granular livers, unusually small spleens and atonic intestine. Surviving animals showed no abnormalities
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
730 mg/kg bw

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
rat
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Route of administration:
inhalation
Type of inhalation exposure:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Duration of exposure:
2 h
Control animals:
not specified
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
7 690 mg/m³ air
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Value:
7 690 mg/m³

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

There is very little published and unpublished data available on the adverse health effects of xanthates in general and sodium ethyl xanthate in particular. Toxicological data for other xanthates were also assessed where available, as the adverse effects of the various xanthates are similar.

The acute oral toxicity study indicates that sodium ethyl xanthate as a 10% solution at a pH of 10.5 to 11 has an LD50 of 730 mg/kg in mice. The target sites are the central nervous system, liver and the spleen. The oral LD50 for other xanthates in mice ranges from 411 to 583 mg/kg and in rats from 1000 to 2000 mg/kg.

Acute toxicity via oral route:

Effect level:

LD50= 730 mg/kg b.w. in male mice; as 10% water solution of sodium ethyl xanthate (CAS# 140-90-9)

LD50of various xanthates are similar, ranging from 411 to 583 mg/kg b.w. in mice and from 1000 to 2000 mg/kb b.w. in rats.

Oral administration of potassium butyl xanthate (CAS# 871-58-9) to rats produced increased motor activity , cyanosis, irritability , increased respiration and convulsions with death occurring 1 to 2 hours after administration. Autopsy shoved pervascular and pericellular oedema, multiple haemorrhages in the lungs perivascular subarachnoid heamorrhages and acute swelling of the cells of the cortex, subcortical ganglia and brain stem. Also were observed fatty dystrophy of the liver and protein dystrophy of the kidney

PubliFull Public Report, Sodium Ethyl Xanthate, Priority Existing Chemical No. 5 , May 1995, Canberra , Australia

After ingestion of CS2, CAS# 75-15-0) victims exhibited spasmodic tremors, prostration, dyspnea, cyanosis, peripheral vascular collapse, hypothermia, mydriasis, convulsions, coma and death in few hours from respiratory paralysis. Only mild gastrointestinal irritation and visceral congestion were noted at autopsy. Women appear to be more sensitive than men to the neurotoxic effects of carbon disulfide. Industrially exposed workers have exhibited neuropsychiatric disorders ranging from irritability to manic-depressive psychosis, clinical manifestations of nerve damage are blindness, and signs of parkinsonism.

 (Toxicological Profile for carbon disulfide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . Public Health Service . Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry . August 1996)

Acute toxicity via inhalation route:

Depending upon the concentration of CS2in repairable air different types of poisoning symptoms are encountered. Most prominent are general neurotoxic and narcotic effects.

NOEC: 500 - 700 mg/m3(160 - 224 ppm) of CS2

2500mg/m3= 800 ppm for 1.5 - 3 hours: strong headache,

6400 - 10000mg/m3(2048 - 3200 ppm) for 30min. narcotic condition, strong headache. (IUCLID Dataset: Carbon Disulfide, Creation date 19 February 2000, European Commission, European Chemicals Bureau)

An inhalation maximum risk level (MRL) 0.3 ppm (0.9mg/m3) for CS2was derived based on epidemiological data, concerning public health.

LOAEL= 7.6 ppm, represents the average exposure of workers 8 hour/day, 5 days a week for a mean exposure period of 12 years(ATSDR 1996, Toxicological profile for carbon disulfide. Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Institute Contract No. 205-93-0606).

Acute toxicity via dermal route:

Application of 1 gm/kg of sodium ethyl xanthate in the form of a paste resulted in the death of ten out of twelve animals within 24 hrs. The surviving animals developed irritant effects including oedema and pigmentation of the skin. The sulphide odour noted during the study suggests that decomposition of sodium ethyl xanthate occurred. The dermal LD50 was < 1000 mg/kg.

Sodium ethyl xanthate (CAS# 140-90-9)or sodium isobutyl xanthate (CAS # 25306-75-6) can be assessed as a substances strongly irritating skin of rabbits – IIPC factor accordingly 6.2 and 7.0.(The Institute of Organic Industry Branch of Pszczyna Toxicology Department, March 1998)

Sodium or potassium xanthates dissolved in water undergoes hydrolysis giving alkaline reaction. When xanthates are produced as a water solutions exes of alkali hydroxide is kept (pH >10) as a decomposition inhibitor.

Human information

Xanthates dust or mist from solution cause irritation to the nose, throat and upper respiratory tract. The solids give carbon disulfide in contact with water, very toxic and extremely flammable vapour. Relatively low concentration of carbon disulfide can harm the central nervous system, may cause headache , dizziness, fatigue, excitement and depression. High concentration of CS2can cause psychological disturbances and death.

It is known one case reported of acute exposure of an employee who lost consciousness when was opened a tank containing powder sodium ethyl xanthate. The worker was restless, vomited and had convulsive twitching of muscles in arms and legs. He complained of difficulty breathing, eye tearing and hoarseness. the respiratory and eye effects persisted for 3 weeks. No toxic effects were observed 3 month later.(COOH, CHEMINFO Sodium ethyl xanthateupdated July 2010,www.ccohs.ca)

Probable the oral lethal human dose of sodium ethyl xanthate is between 50-500mg/kg(Gosselin R.E., Hodge H.C., Smith R.P., Gleason M.N., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products,1979.,p. II-211)

An assessment of acid or alkali reserve

Sodium or potassium xanthates dissolved in water undergoes hydrolysis giving alkaline reaction. When xanthates are produced as a water solutions exes of an alkali hydroxide is kept (pH >10) as a decomposition inhibitor.

Respiratory tract

Sodium isopropyl xanthate(CAS# 140-93-2) irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membrane, respiratory tract(The Merck Index , 9th ed., Merck & Co., Inc., 1976 , p. 1116; http:// toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp )

Xanthates dust or water solution mist is irritating to the nose, throat and upper respiratory track under normal condition of use.(COOH, CHEMINFO Sodium ethyl xanthate updated July 20210,www.ccohs.ca)

Sodium isopropyl xanthate(CAS# 140-93-2)is irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membrane, respiratory tract(The Merck Index , 9th ed., Merck & Co., Inc., 1976 , p. 1116; http:// toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp )

Justification for classification or non-classification