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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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According to column 2, Annex IX of Regulation (EC) No. EC 1907/2006, long-term toxicity testing shall be proposed if the chemical safety assessment indicates the need to investigate further the effects on aquatic organisms. Long-term tests for aquatic invertebrates and algae are available and based on short-term results the fish is not expected to be more sensitive than aquatic invertebrates. The endpoints for the three relevant aquatic trophic levels are in the same order of magnitude. Based on short-term tests from each trophic level, the test substance can be regarded as acutely not harmful to aquatic organisms. Moreover, chronic studies for invertebrates and algae result also in no classification; therefore in respect with animal welfare no further long term studies with fish are necessary. Hence, no long-term test with fish is proposed due to animal welfare as considered in Annex IX, column 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006.

Furthermore, In November, 2013, scientists and project managers from TVA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Middle Tennessee State University, and ARCADIS presented information on results of ecological investigations conducted in support of the Kingston Ash Recovery Project in a Special Symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) in Nashville, Tennessee ( These focused on results of laboratory and field studies and their application in a baseline ecological risk assessment. TVA is assessing all levels of the ecosystem to comprehensively evaluate whether adverse effects have resulted from the spill.  This involves monitoring communities and populations of organisms potentially exposed to ash, individual organisms comprising these groups, individual organ and tissue health, and reproduction success, which can be indicators of ash-related effects (

Fathead minnows were exposed in a laboratory to filtered Emory River water from control and to ash-affected sediments from the Emory River.  No differences were observed between controls and fly-ash exposed embryos during short-term 7-day tests. Preliminary results of long-term exposures also indicate no adverse effects on fish egg production.

Metals/metalloids are elevated in fish exposed to coal ash from the Kingston release, but not at levels considered to be of significant concern for potential reproductive impacts. No adverse effects on reproduction observed to date in female fish exposed in situ to ash from spill. Direct contact of fertilized eggs to coal ash containing sediment from the Emory River had no observable effects on larval fish survival or incidences of developmental abnormalities. Long-term contact and water-borne exposures of adult fish to coal ash in the laboratory had no obvious effects on fish reproduction. No effects on the in vitro spawning success or early larval development of redear sunfish collected from the Emory and Clinch Rivers upstream and downstream of the ash release Results to date consistent with TVA larval fish and gamefish surveys, and suggest minimal risk of ash release to fish reproduction in Emory River and Watts Bar Reservoir.