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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Remarks:
combined repeated dose and reproduction / developmental screening
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP Guideline Study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013
Report Date:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): N4-Amine N,N’-Bis-(3-Aminopropyl)-ethylenediamine
- Physical state: Clear slightly yellowish liquid
- Analytical purity: 95.9 g/100 g
- Lot/batch No.: 000STD77L0
- Stability under test conditions: stable
- Storage condition of test material: At room temperature in the dark

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: approx. 11 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: mean: females: 201 g, males: 318 g
- Housing: in groups of 5 animals/sex/cage
- Diet: free access to pelleted rodent diet (SM R/M-Z from SSNIFF® Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany)
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least five days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 18 - 24
- Humidity (%): 40 - 70
- Air changes (per hr): 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: Formulations (w/w) were prepared daily within 5 hours prior to dosing and were homogenized to a visually acceptable level. Adjustment was made for specific gravity of the test substance. No correction was made for the purity of the test substance.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
1H-NMR spectroscopy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
females: 42-53 days
males: 29 days
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
30, 100, 300 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on results of the 14-day dose range finding study (Project 499971; BASF Project 01R0402/04X033) where dose levels of 0, 150 and 400 mg/kg bw/day were assessed. Animals at 400 mg/kg bw/day had slightly lower body weight gains or weight loss and slightly lower food consumption. Changes in haematology and clinical biochemistry parameters were noted, along with increased absolute and relative liver weights (both sexes) and higher relative kidney weights (males). Females at 150 mg/kg bw/day also had higher absolute and relative liver weights.

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily
- Cage side observations checked: mortality, pain, distress or discomfort

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Males and females were weighed on the first day of exposure and weekly thereafter. Mated females were weighed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17 and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on Days 1 and 4.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Yes

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes: Subjective appraisal was maintained during the study, but no quantitative investigation was introduced as no treatment related effect was suspected.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: on day of necropsy
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (isoflurane)
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group
- Parameters examined: white blood cells (WBC), differential leucocyte count (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils), red blood cells, reticulocytes, red blood cell distribution width, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: on day of necropsy
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group
- Parameters examined: alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, bile acids

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: daily
- Dose groups that were examined: 5 animals/sex/group
- Battery of functions tested: hearing ability, pupillary reflex, static righting reflex, grip stenght, locomotor activity
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes (macroscopic examination of the cranial, thoracic and abdominal tissues and organs, with special attention being paid to the reproductive organs)
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (Adrenal glands, Ovaries, (Pancreas), (Aorta), Peyer's patches [jejunum, ileum] if detectable, Brain - cerebellum, mid-brain, cortex, Pituitary gland, Caecum, Preputial gland, Cervix, Prostate gland, Clitoral gland, Rectum, Colon, (Salivary glands - mandibular, sublingual), Coagulation gland, Sciatic nerve, Duodenum, Seminal vesicles, Epididymides, Skeletal muscle, Eyes (with optic nerve (if detectable) and Harderian gland), (Skin), Spinal cord -cervical, midthoracic, lumbar, (Male and Female mammary gland area), Spleen, Femur including joint, Sternum with bone marrow, Heart, Stomach, Ileum, Testes, Jejunum, Thymus, Kidneys, Thyroid including parathyroid if detectable, (Lacrimal gland, exorbital), (Tongue), (Larynx), Trachea, Liver, Urinary bladder, Lung, infused with formalin, Uterus, Lymph nodes - mandibular, mesenteric, Vagina

[Tissues/organs mentioned in parentheses were not examined by the pathologist, since no signs of toxicity were noted at macroscopic examination.]
Other examinations:
Organ weights: Adrenal glands, Spleen, Brain, Testes, Epididymides, Thymus, Heart, Uterus (including cervix), Kidneys, Prostate, Liver, Seminal vesicles including coagulating glands, Ovaries, Thyroid including parathyroid
Statistics:
The following statistical methods were used to analyze the data:
- If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-test many-to-one t-test) based on a pooled variance estimate was applied for the comparison of the treated groups and the control groups for each sex.
- The Steel-test (many-to-one rank test) was applied if the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution.
- The Fisher Exact-test was applied to frequency data.
The following additional methods of statistical analysis were used:
Motor activity data was subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric ANOVA test to determine intergroup differences followed by the Wilcoxon test to compare the treated groups to the control group.
All tests were two-sided and in all cases p < 0.05 was accepted as the lowest level of significance.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY: At 300 mg/kg bw/day there were three males that died spontaneously (nos. 31, 32 and 38) on study days 21, 25, and 29 and one that died after blood collection immediately prior to the scheduled necropsy (no. 37), and there was one female (no. 72) that was euthanized in extremis on day 7 post coitum.
Clinical signs noted for the animals that died prematurely or were euthanized in extremis included lethargy, hunched posture, piloerection and quick breathing. These were noted on single or limited occasions on the day(s) immediately preceding death of these animals. Alopecia was noted for a single female at 300 and chromodacryorrhea (of the right periorbital region) was recorded for a single male at 100 mg/kg bw/day. These were the only other clinical signs observed and were incidental in nature.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN: Body weights and body weight gains were significantly lower than controls for males at 300 mg/kg bw/day during the mating period. Males slightly lost weight during the second week of the study and during mating period. Body weights and/or body weight gains were significantly lower during the post coitum and lactation periods for females at 300 mg/kg bw/day. Absolute body weights were lower during the post coitum and lactation periods for females at 100 mg/kg bw/day as well, though the differences were not always statistically significant. Body weight gain was significantly lower for females at 100 mg/kg bw/day on Day 8 of the pre mating period. In the absence of a dose response effect it was not considered toxicologically relevant.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Absolute food consumption was lower during the mating period, and relative food consumption was lower during the last part of the premating period and throughout the mating period for males at 300 mg/kg bw/day. Females at this dose level had significantly lower absolute food consumption during days 0-7 and 14-20 of the post coitum period and over days 1-4 of the lactation period. There were no other treatment related effects on absolute or relative food consumption up to 100 mg/kg bw/day.

HAEMATOLOGY: At 300 mg/kg bw/day the following statistically significant changes distinguished treated animals from controls:
-Increased white blood cells (WBC; males only)
-Increased neutrophils (males only)
-Increased monocytes (also at 100 mg/kg bw/day, males only)
-Increased reticulocytes (males only)
-Increased platelets (males only)
-Reduced lymphocytes (males only)
-Reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV; females only)
-Reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH; females only)
In the absence of any other findings, the higher monocytes counts at 100 mg/kg bw/day are considered not to be toxicologically relevant.
There were no other differences between treated and control animals.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: At 300 mg/kg bw/day, the following statistically significant changes in clinical biochemistry parameters distinguished treated animals from control animals:
-Reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, females only)
-Reduced total protein (males only)
-Reduced albumin (males only)
-Increased cholesterol (males only)
-Increased bile acids (males only)
-Reduced potassium (males only)
-Reduced chloride (males only)
-Reduced calcium (males and females, also reduced for females at 100 mg/kg bw/day)
In the absence of any other findings, the lower calcium concentrations at 100 mg/kg bw/day are considered not to be toxicologically relevant.
Potassium was significantly increased for males at 100 mg/kg bw/day. This was not considered to be treatment related as no dose response effect was seen (potassium was significantly decreased for males at 300 mg/kg bw/day). Similarly, the statistically significant reduction in inorganic phosphate noted for males at 30 mg/kg bw/day was not considered to be treatment related as it occurred in the absence of a dose response relationship.

ORGAN WEIGHTS: Terminal body weights were significantly lower for animals of both sexes at 300 mg/kg bw/day (not statistically significant for females). Males at this dose level also had significantly higher absolute and relative spleen weights (relative spleen weights were also higher for males at 100 mg/kg bw/day), higher relative liver and kidney weights and significantly lower absolute testes and seminal vesicle weights. Females at this dose level had significantly higher thymus (absolute and relative) and significantly lower thyroid (absolute and relative) and adrenal (absolute) weights. The significantly increased brain to body weight ratio seen for males at 300 mg/kg bw/day was secondary to the lower terminal body weights and was not considered to be toxicologically relevant.
Similarly, the significantly higher relative thyroid weights that were noted for females at 30 mg/kg bw/day occurred in the absence of a dose response relationship and were not considered to be toxicologically relevant.
Other organ weights and organ to body weight ratios were similar between control and treated groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY: Macroscopic findings noted for the animals that died spontaneously or were killed in extremis included beginning or advanced autolysis, dark red, reddish, or grey-white discoloration of the lungs, many dark red foci on the lungs, dark red contents of the small intestines, irregular surface of, and a tan and/or reddish focus on the stomach or forestomach, reddish foci on the stomach glandular mucosa, stomach limiting ridge thickened, greenish foci on the caecum, reddish discoloration of the thymus, black and/or dark red discoloration of the mesenteric or mandibular lymph node, agenesis and/or reduced size of the seminal vesicles.
Relevant macroscopic findings noted for animals at 300 mg/kg bw/day that survived to the scheduled necropsy included many dark red foci or an isolated tan focus on the the lungs, reddish foci on the stomach glandular mucosa and irregular surface of the forestomach. Additionally, female no. 73 was noted with a dark red and hard nodule in the right uterine horn. Incidental findings noted for control and treated animals included reddish or dark red foci on the thymus, reddish discoloration of the thymus, yellowish focus on the right medial lobe of the liver, alopecia, yellowish or greenish soft nodules on the epididymides, pelvic dilation of the kidney(s), watery-clear cyst on the right kidney, tan discoloration of the right clitoral gland, and uterus contains fluid. These findings occurred without a treatment related distribution and remained within the background range of findings seen for rats of this age and strain, and were thus not considered to be treatment related or toxicologically relevant.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Treatment-related microscopic findings were seen in several organs including:
Lung:
- Hemorrhage was noted in 4/8 males and 2/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Mucous cell hyperplasia of the bronchi/bronchioles epithelium was noted in 6/8 males (up to moderate) and in 2/6 females (up to marked) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Bronchiolization of the alveoli wall was noted in 6/8 males (up to moderate) and in 3/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Alveolar inflammation was noted at increased incidence and severity in 7/8 males (up to moderate) and 5/6 females (up to marked) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 2/5 males (minimal) in the 0 mg/kg bw/day, 2/5 males and 4/5 females (minimal) in the 30 mg/kg bw/day and 4/5 males and 2/5 females (minimal) in the 100 mg/kg bw/day treated rats.
- Interstitial inflammation was noted at increased incidence and severity in 8/8 males (up to moderate) and 4/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 1/5 males and 1/5 females (minimal) in the 30 mg/kg bw/day and 2/5 males (minimal) in the 100 mg/kg bw/day treated rats.
The mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisted of lymphocytes, granulocytes and macrophages.
- Fibrin deposition was noted in 3/8 males (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Fibrosis was noted in 6/8 males (up to moderate) and in 3/6 females (up to slight) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Stomach:
- Ulceration of the forestomach was noted in 4/8 males (up to marked) and 2/6 females (up to moderate) in the 300 mg/kg bw/day treated rats.
- Hyperplasia of the forestomach was noted in 7/8 males and 3/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Lymphogranulocytic inflammation of the forestomach was noted in 5/8 males and 3/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Lymphogranulocytic inflammation of the limiting ridge was noted at increased incidence and/or severity in 6/8 males (up to slight) and 4/6 females (minimal) at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to minimal degree in 1/5 males treated at 0 mg/kg bw/day, 2/5 males treated at 30 mg/kg bw/day and in 1/5 females in the 100 mg/kg bw/day group.
- Vacuolation of the limiting ridge was noted at increased incidence and/or severity in 3/8 males (up to moderate) and 4/6 females (up to slight) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day compared to 3/5 males at minimal degree in the 100 mg/kg bw/day.
- Lymphogranulocytic inflammation of the glandular stomach was noted at increased severity in 4/8 males and 2/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 2/5 males with a minimal degree in the 100 mg/kg bw/day treated males.
- Increased apoptosis in the mucosa of the glandular stomach was noted in 1/6 females (moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Hemorrhage of the glandular mucosa was noted at slight degree in 1/8 male treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Thymus:
- Lymphoid atrophy was noted at increased severity (moderate) in 1/7 females treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day compared to minimal in 1/5 females treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day. This increased severity was considered to be secondary due to the poor condition of this unscheduled death.
Spleen:
- An increase in severity of hemopoietic foci (3 minimal, 3 slight, 2 moderate) was recorded in males treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 5/5 minimal treated at 0 mg/kg bw/day, 5/5 minimal treated at 30 mg/kg bw/day and 2/5 minimal and 3/5 slight treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
Kidney:
- Corticomedullary tubular basophilia was noted at increased incidence and severity in 6/6 males (slight to marked) and 4/6 females (up to slight) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to minimal degree in 1/5 males and 1/5 females treated at 0 mg/kg bw/day, 2/6 males and 1/5 females treated at 30 mg/kg bw/day and 2/7 males and 1/5 females treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
- Granular cast(s)/degeneration of tubular epithelium was noted in 5/6 males (up to slight) and 1/6 females (minimal, unscheduled death) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
- Tubular dilatation was noted in 5/6 males (up to slight) and 5/6 females (minimal) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
An increase in incidence of hyaline cast(s) was noted in 4/6 males (minimal degree) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 1/6 males treated at 30 mg/kg bw/day.
Adrenal gland:
- Lymphocytic inflammation of the distal part of the zona fasciculate and zona reticularis was noted in 3/5 females (all minimal) treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day and in 1/8 males (slight) and 5/6 females (slight to marked) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Eyes:
- Retinal dysplasia (rosettes) was recorded in 5/7 males (up to slight) and 5/6 females (up to moderate) treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day, compared to 1/5 females (minimal, only unilateral) treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
The remainder of microscopic findings recorded were within the normal range of background pathology encountered in Wistar (Han) rats of this age.

NEUROBEHAVIOUR: Functional observations: Hearing ability, pupillary reflex, static righting reflex and grip strength were normal in all animals.
Total counts were significantly lower for males at 300 mg/kg bw/day, and ambulations were also reduced (not statistically significant); a relationship to treatment cannot be excluded. All groups showed a similar habituation profile with high activity in the first interval that decreased over the duration of the test period.

Effect levels

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion