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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

The high quality chronic database contains freshwater toxicity data for 2 rotifer species (Philodina rapida; Brachionus calyciflorus), 1 insect (Chironomus tentans), 2 mollusc species (Lymnaea palustris; Lymnaea stagnalis) and 5 crustacean species (Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Diaphanosoma birgei, Alona rectangula). Chronic freshwater no-effect levels for dissolved lead for invertebrates were situated between 1.7 µg Pb/L (Lymnaea stagnalis; endpoint: growth) and 495.7 µg Pb/L (Ceriodaphnia dubia; endpoint: mortality). Chronic marine NOEC/L(E)C10 values are available for 2 echinoderms (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), 3 bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus trossolus, Crassostrea gigas) and 1 annelid (Neanthes arenaceodentata). No-effect levels for dissolved lead for marine invertebrates were situated between 9.2 µg Pb/L (Mytilus trossolus; endpoint: abnormalities) and 1409.6 µg Pb/L (Mytilus galloprovincialis; endpoint: mortality).

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Additional information

Pyrochlore:

The overall chemical and physiological properties of pyrochlore are principally characterised by a degree of inertness because of the specific synthetic process (calcination at high temperatures, approximately 1000°C), rendering the substance to be of a unique, stable crystalline structure in which the majority of atoms are tightly bound and not prone to dissolution in environmental and physiological media. This has been shown in transformation/dissolution testing for antimony, in which dissolved Sb concentrations were below 27 µg/L (after 7 days at a loading of 0.1g/L) and 2 µg/L (after 28 days at a loading of 1 mg/L); thus implying a solubility of < 0.03% of antimony. Hence, Sb can be considered as not bioavailable and is not regarded concerning toxicological and environmental effects.

On the other hand, lead dissolution levels were much higher (>2.9 mg/L at a loading of 100 mg/L after 7 days at pH 6; 105 µg/L at a loading of 1 mg/L after 28 days at pH 6) and therefore have to be regarded concerning toxicological and environmental aspects. No substance-specific data on the toxicity of pyrochlore are available, so that instead read-across to lead oxide and sparingly soluble lead compounds was conducted

Lead:

The high quality chronic database contains freshwater toxicity data for 2 rotifer species (Philodina rapida; Brachionus calyciflorus), 1 insect (Chironomus tentans), 2 mollusc species (Lymnaea palustris; Lymnaea stagnalis) and 5 crustacean species (Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Diaphanosoma birgei, Alona rectangula). Chronic freshwater no-effect levels for dissolved lead for invertebrates were situated between 1.7 µg Pb/L (Lymnaea stagnalis; endpoint: growth) and 495.7 µg Pb/L (Ceriodaphnia dubia; endpoint: mortality). Chronic marine NOEC/L(E)C10 values are available for 2 echinoderms (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), 3 bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus trossolus, Crassostrea gigas) and 1 annelid (Neanthes arenaceodentata). No-effect levels for dissolved lead for marine invertebrates were situated between 9.2 µg Pb/L (Mytilus trossolus; endpoint: abnormalities) and 1409.6 µg Pb/L (Mytilus galloprovincialis; endpoint: mortality).