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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

An assessment factor of 6 has been selected on the lowest toxicity data. Considering a background concentration of 1.3 mg Pb/kg in the food, the PNECoral can be calculated as: PNECoral = (NOEC +Cb)/AF = (100+1.3)/6 = 16.9 mg/kg food (birds).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
100 mg/kg food

Additional information

Pyrochlore:

The overall chemical and physiological properties of pyrochlore are principally characterised by a degree of inertness because of the specific synthetic process (calcination at high temperatures, approximately 1000°C), rendering the substance to be of a unique, stable crystalline structure in which the majority of atoms are tightly bound and not prone to dissolution in environmental and physiological media. This has been shown in transformation/dissolution testing for antimony, in which dissolved Sb concentrations were below 27 µg/L (after 7 days at a loading of 0.1g/L) and 2 µg/L (after 28 days at a loading of 1 mg/L); thus implying a solubility of < 0.03% of antimony. Hence, Sb can be considered as not bioavailable and is not regarded concerning toxicological and environmental effects.

On the other hand, lead dissolution levels were much higher (>2.9 mg/L at a loading of 100 mg/L after 7 days at pH 6; 105 µg/L at a loading of 1 mg/L after 28 days at pH 6) and therefore have to be regarded concerning toxicological and environmental aspects. No substance-specific data on the toxicity of pyrochlore are available, so that instead read-across to lead oxide and sparingly soluble lead compounds was conducted

Lead:

In the VRAL (LDAI, 2008) 12 feeding studies with birds (7 bounded NOECs) have been selected. An update of that database was made with 2 additional studies for birds (1 bounded NOEC). Sub-chronic and chronic studies for 4 different bird species were collected from literature, ie for Gallus domesticus, Gallus sp., Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite quail) and Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail). For birds oral toxicity the values varied between 100 and 2000 mg/kg ww. The lowest value of 100 mg Pb/kg ww was used to derive the PNEC, which was observed in several experiments with Japanese quails after 12 weeks. According to the guidance, the PNECoral was calculated from the lowest NOECoral using an assesment factor.

An assessment factor of 6 has been selected on the lowest toxicity data. Considering a background concentration of 1.3 mg Pb/kg in the food, the PNECoral can be calculated as: PNECoral = (NOEC +Cb)/AF = (100+1.3)/6 = 16.9 mg/kg food (birds).