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Physical & Chemical properties

Oxidising properties

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Endpoint:
oxidising solids
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Finished on 29 MAY 1995
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria: Test O.1 (Test for oxidizing solids)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Contact with:
other: 1) sawdust 2) fibrous cellulose
Key result
Sample tested:
4:1 sample-to-cellulose ratio
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
88 s
Remarks on result:
other: there is a reaction between the sample and cellulose
Sample tested:
1:1 sample-to-cellulose ratio
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
246 s
Remarks on result:
other: combustion with little flames
Sample tested:
reference: 3:7 mixture potassium bromate + cellulose
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
106 s
Remarks on result:
other: not specified
Sample tested:
reference: 2:3 mixture potassium bromate + cellulose
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
61 s
Remarks on result:
other: not specified

1) Test according to the UN method in place in 1995:

 

Sample

Ratio sample / sawdust

Burning time (s)

Observations

N°1

N°2

N°3

Average

Cerium trinitrate

4/1

55

74

57

62

There is a reaction between the product and sawdust

 

Cerium trinitrate

1/1

325

343

337

335

Burning on the surface of the pile (probably with oxygen from the air)

Ammonium persulfate

1/1

40

34

41

38

 

 The lowest mean burning time obtained for the mixture cerium trinitrate/sawdust (ratio 4:1) is more than that of the mixture with ammonium persulphate. Therefore, cerium trinitrate is not considered as an oxidizing material according to the UN method in place in 1995.

2) Test according to the current UN method:

Sample

Ratio sample / cellulose

Burning time (s)

Observations

N° 1

N° 2

N° 3

N° 4

N° 5

Average

Cerium trinitrate

4/1

79

91

83

97

88

88

There is a reaction between the product and cellulose.

Cerium trinitrate

1/1

242

304

237

241

209

246

Combustion with little flames

Potassium bromate

3/7

113

105

102

107

103

106

 

Potassium bromate

2/3

85

60

60

46

52

61

 

The mixture of cerium trinitrate / cellulose in the ratio 4 / 1 ignites and burns relatively quickly. A popping sound accompanied by small projections was heard. After the test, there are numerous incandescent spots inside the pile. The burning time is faster than the reference mixture of potassium bromate / cellulose in the ratio 3 / 7, but slower than the reference mixture of potassium bromate / cellulose in the ratio 2 / 3.
The mixture of cerium trinitrate / cellulose in the ratio 1 / 1 burns slowly with little flames. After the test, there are numerous incandescent spots within the pile. All the burning times are slower than those of the reference mixture.

According to these results, cerium trinitrate is considered as oxidizer and was classified under Division 5.1, Packing Group III.
Interpretation of results:
Category 3 (oxidising solids) based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
Cerium trinitrate gave a negative result according to the UN method in place in 1995 and a positive result according to the current method.
Cerium trinitrate is considered as an oxidizer and was classified under Division 5.1, Packing Group III.
Executive summary:

The oxidising properties of cerium trinitrate were assessed according to two successive procedures described in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.8 and ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.2).

The first one described the criteria in place in 1995. The second procedure described the current criteria, adopted after the 18thmeeting of the ONU experts committee on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

Cerium trinitrate gave a negative result according to the UN method in place in 1995 and a positive result according to the current method.

Cerium trinitrate is considered as an oxidizer and was classified under Division 5.1, Packing Group III.

Accordingly, Cerium trinitrate is classified:

- Oxidising solid cat. 3 (H272) under CLP.

Endpoint:
oxidising liquids
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Finished MARCH 1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria: Test O.2 (Test for oxidizing liquids)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Contact with:
other: fibrous cellulose
Sample tested:
test mixture 1:1
Parameter:
mean pressure rise time
Result:
15.4 s
Remarks on result:
other: The pressure rise time of the mixture of cerium trinitrate in concentrated aqueous solution and cellulose is higher than that of a mixture of an aqueous solution of nitric acid (65%) and cellulose.
Sample tested:
reference mixture with 65% nitric acid + cellulose (1:1 ratio)
Parameter:
mean pressure rise time
Result:
4.6 s

 

pressure rise time (test material/cellulose 1:1)

Remarks

pressure rise time

material : nitric acid aqueous solution

(reference/cellulose 1:1)

Remarks

Test 1

14 s

Inflammation and disk* rupture

4.32 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

Test 2

11 s

Inflammation and no disk rupture

5 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

Test 3

27.8 s

Inflammation and no disk rupture

4 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

Test 4

8.2 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

5.4 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

Test 5

16.2 s

Inflammation and no disk rupture

4.4 s

Inflammation and disk rupture

* The disk is used to close the pressure vessel.

As the pressure rise time of the mixture with cerium trinitrate is superior to that of the mixture with nitric acid, cerium trinitrate in aqueous solution is not considered as an oxidising material.

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
Cerium trinitrate in aqueous solution has no oxidizing properties under the conditions of the test.
Executive summary:

The determination of the oxidising properties of cerium trinitrate in aqueous solution was performed according to UN Recommendations for Transport of Dangerous Goods (Test O.2 for oxidising liquid)

The liquid is mixed in a 1 to 1 ratio, by mass, with fibrous cellulose. The mixture is heated in a pressure vessel and the rate of pressure rise is determined. This parameter was compared with the same parameter for a mixture of nitric acid aqueous solution (65%) and cellulose.

The rise time pressure of the mixture of cerium trinitrate in concentrated aqueous solution and cellulose is higher than that of a mixture of an aqueous solution of nitric acid (65%) and cellulose. So cerium trinitrate in aqueous solution has no oxidizing properties.

Endpoint:
oxidising solids
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria: Test O.1 (Test for oxidizing solids)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Contact with:
powdered cellulose
Key result
Sample tested:
4:1 sample-to-cellulose ratio
Remarks on result:
mixture does not ignite and burn
Sample tested:
1:1 sample-to-cellulose ratio
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
210 s
Remarks on result:
other: ignition 30 s after the start of the test, gradual burning, flame extinguishes after 210 s
Sample tested:
reference: 3:7 mixture potassium bromate + cellulose
Parameter:
mean burning time
Result:
109 s
Remarks on result:
other: not specified

Mixture substance : cellulose = 1:1 -> ignition 30 s after the start of the test, gradual burning. The flame extinguishes after 3 min 30 s.

Mixture substance : cellulose = 4:1 -> development of yellow vapours (nitrous gas), the substance links together under superficial carbonization. Ignition of the substance : cellulose mixture was not observed during the duration of the test (3 min).

The mean burning time of the 4:1 sample-to-cellulose mixture was higher (no ignition) than that of the 3:7 potassium bromate-to-cellulose reference mixture. Therefore the substance does not need to be classified for oxidising properties.

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
Based on the results of the test, this substance should not be classified as oxidising agent (no classification in category 5.1 of ADR).

Description of key information

In a non GLP key study performed according to the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.2) the substance was concluded to have oxidising properties (Lodel, 1995). Cerium trinitrate is considered as an oxidiser and was classified under Division 5.1, Packing Group III. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Oxidising properties:
oxidising

Additional information

A more recent non GLP supporting study (Kirchnawy, 2000) in accordance with the UN Recommendations for Transport of Dangerous goods (Test O.1 for oxidising solids) showed cerium trinitrate not to have oxidising properties.Although both studies are reliable, the Lodel (1995) test was taken as the key study, following the precautionary principle. The different results could be due to the level of hydration and/or the particle size of the substance tested.

In a further supporting study (Carson, 1997), the oxidising properties of the substance in aqueous solution were determined according to UN Recommendations for Transport of Dangerous Goods (Test O.2 for oxidising liquids). Cerium trinitrate in aqueous solution was concluded not to have oxidising properties.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Following the results of the key study, solid cerium trinitrate should be classified as an oxidising solid Category 3 (H272) according to the criteria of the CLP regulation.