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Ecotoxicological Summary

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Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no potential for bioaccumulation

Additional information

The rate and extent to which divanadium trioxide produces soluble (bio)available ionic and other vanadium-bearing species in environmental media is limited. Based on results of a standard transformation/dissolution test according to OECD Series No 29, the dissolution at a loading of 1 mg V2O3 powder/L results after 7 days in dissolved vanadium levels of 85 μg/L and 106 μg/L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. After 28 days, dissolved vanadium levels are at 100 μg/L at pH 8 and 105 μg/L at pH 6. Further, the poor solubility of divanadium trioxide is expected to determine its behaviour and fate in the environment, and subsequently its bioavailability and potential for bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity. Divanadium trioxide at pH 6 and 8, similar to other inorganic vanadium substances, transforms to the higher (V) oxidation state immediately upon dissolution (94% (V(V) after 24 hours) and is retained in pentavalent form (96-97% V(V) after 28 days). Therefore, a read-across approach is applied based on all information available for different inorganic vanadium substances and the fate of the limited vanadium ions released can ultimately be expected to be similar to the common fate of vanadium ions in the environment as described in the endpoint summary "V_Environmental fate and pathways".

For further information on the applied read-across approach, please refer to the RAAF document "Read-across approach for environmental toxicity of the vanadium category, 2020" attached in IUCLID Section 13.

Conclusion on classification

The rate and extent to which divanadium trioxide produces soluble (bio)available ionic and other vanadium-bearing species in environmental media is limited. Further, the poor solubility of divanadium trioxide is expected to determine its behaviour and fate in the environment, and subsequently its bioavailability and its potential for ecotoxicity. Based on results of a standard transformation/dissolution test according to OECD Series No 29, the dissolution at a loading of 1 mg V2O3 powder/L results after 7 days in dissolved vanadium levels of 85 μg/L and 106 μg/L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. After 28 days, dissolved vanadium levels are at 100 μg/L at pH 8 and 105 μg/L at pH 6. Since divanadium trioxide is an inorganic substance, biodegradation is not relevant. 

The acute and chronic reference values of 0.693 and 0.203 mg V/L for vanadium toxicity are based on dissolved elemental vanadium concentrations.

In accordance with ECHA Guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria (V 5.0, July 2017), “A poorly soluble substance is evaluated for classification by comparing the dissolved metal ion level resulting from the T/Dp at 7 d, at a loading rate of 1 mg/l with the acute ERV as determined for the (soluble) metal ion.” The dissolution levels of the poorly soluble divanadium trioxide in the 7-d T/Dp at 1 mg/L loading and pH 6 and pH 8 are lower than the acute ERV of the dissolved vanadium ion, thereby not resulting in an acute classification. Thus, in accordance with Figure IV.4 “Classification strategy for determining acute aquatic hazard for metal compounds” of ECHA Guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria (V 5.0, July 2017) and section 4.1.2.10.2. of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, classification for acute (short-term) aquatic hazard is not required for divanadium trioxide.

Divanadium trioxide is evaluated for long-term classification by comparing the dissolved metal ion level resulting from the T/Dp at 28 d, at a loading rate of 1 mg/L with the chronic ERV as determined for the (dissolved) vanadium ion. The dissolution level of the poorly soluble divanadium trioxide in the 28 d T/Dp at 1 mg/L loading and pH 6 and pH 8 is lower than the chronic ERV of the dissolved vanadium ion, thereby not resulting in a long-term (chronic) classification. Thus, in accordance with Figure IV.5 „Classification strategy for determining long-term aquatic hazard for metal compounds“ of ECHA Guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria (V 5.0, July 2017) and section 4.1.2.10.2. of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, classification for long-term (chronic) aquatic hazard is not required for divanadium trioxide. 

Therefore, it is concluded that divanadium trioxide does not meet acute or chronic classification criteria as hazardous to the aquatic environment according to the European CLP Regulation ((EC) No 1272/2008).