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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Additional toxicological data

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Administrative data

additional toxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Not specified
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No purity or GLP data, but methods well documented.

Data source

Reference Type:
Triphenyltin and tributyltin, single and in combination, promote imposex in the gastropod bolinus brandaris.
Machado Santos et al
Bibliographic source:
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 64: 155-162

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Endocrine disruption.
Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Investigation into the effects on the penis of male and female snails when dosed with the test material
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Tributyltin chloride
EC Number:
EC Name:
Tributyltin chloride
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
tributylstannanylium chloride

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1 shows the biological parameters and maturity stages of all the animals used in the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the percentages of mature females were lower in all organotin treatments (43-47 %) versus controls (67 %), indicating a possible interference of organotins with female sexual maturation, as they all came from the same field site and were simultaneously collected.

Table 2 indicates male and female penis size at the beginning of the experiment (T = 0), at 11 days (T = 11), and at 1 month afterward (T = 31) for the organotin-injected animals.

No significant increase (P> 0.05) in male penis size was recorded in any situation after a single injection of the tested organotin compounds relative to the control. However, female penises in the test material (P<0.05) treatments were significantly increased after 31 days. Of all treatments, the mixture of both compounds displayed the highest increase in female's penis length, which by day 31 was significantly different from control or test material-injected females. In addition to increase in female penis size, imposex induction was also observed after test material injection, as a few females (three in the control, two for the test material) had no penis and/or vas deference at the beginning of the experiment, and imposex could be observed at the conclusion of the experiment in all test material-injected females but not in the controls. As at the initiation of the experiment most females were already in imposex stage 4, with a tiny penis in comparison to males, to monitor any changes in the vas deferens sequence index was not possible, and therefore only imposex induction and increase in female penis length were considered in the present study.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

At the end of 4 weeks, significant increases in the female penis size of those gastropods injected with the test material (P <0.05) were recorded.
Executive summary:

Specimens of Bolinus brandaris (neogastropod) were injected with a single dose of 500 ng/g body weight (b.w.) of test material for a period of up to 31 days. At the end of 4 weeks, significant increases in the female penis size of those gastropods injected with the test material (P <0.05) were recorded.