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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Parent compound pivaloyl chloride (CAS 3282-30-2): No data available.

Hydrolysis product pivalic acid (CAS 75-98-9): with high probability acutely not harmful to fish.

Hydrolysis product HCl (CAS 7647-01-0): Acutely toxic for fish (pH dependent).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Dose descriptor:
Hydrolysis product pivalic acid
Effect concentration:
287 mg/L

Additional information

The parent compound pivaloyl chloride (CAS 3282-30-2) rapidly hydrolyses in contact with water and forms pivalic acid (CAS 75-98-9) and HCl (CAS 7647-01-0). No data are available for the parent compound itself. Therefore, the acute toxicity to fish will be assessed based on the information available for the hydrolysis products pivalic acid and HCl.


Parent compound pivaloyl chloride:

No data available.


Hydrolysis product pivalic acid:

Acute fish toxicity of the hydrolysis product pivalic acid was tested GLP compliantly according to OECD 203 with Danio rerio (BASF AG, 1999). Originally the study was conducted with the parent compound pivaloyl chloride. However, chemical analysis revealed pivalic acid and not pivaloyl chloride as test item. Due to the very rapid hydrolysis of pivaloyl chloride (according to an OECD 111 test, see IUCLID chp 3.1.2) of << 30 min at pH 4, it is concluded, that the measured values refer to the hydrolysis product pivalic acid rather than to the parent compound. The 96-h LC50 was found to be 287 mg/L, based on mean measured test concentrations. In a supporting study conducted according to 'Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method #231, 1971, Type: Fish Static Acute Toxicity Test' with Carassius auratus a 96-h LC50 of 380mg/L was determined (Bridie, 1979).


Hydrolysis product HCL:

HCl was tested in a semi-static acute toxicity test according to OECD 203 with Cyprinus carpio. The 96-h LC50 was 4.92 mg/L (acid equivalent to pH 4.3; MITI, 1999; peer reviewed data: OECD SIDS, 2002).

Additionally supporting peer reviewed data (OECD SIDS, 2002) are available from a publication by Graham & Wood (1981). In an acute fish toxicity test using an open system with a total exposure duration of 7 days with O. mykiss as test organism the derived 96-h LC50 for hard water was 7.45 mg/L (acid equivalent to pH 4.12); for soft water the 96-h LC50 was determined to be 10.3 mg/L (acid equivalent to pH 3.98).