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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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toxicity to terrestrial plants
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment

Data source

Reference Type:
Induction of Somatic Mutations in Tradescantia clone 4430 by Three Phenylenediamine Isomers and the Antimutagenic Mechanisms of Diethyldithiocarbamate and Ammonium Vanadate
Gichner T, Cabrera Lopez G, Wagner ED, and Plewa MJ.
Bibliographic source:
Mutation Research; 306: 165-172

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
- 50 cuttings of Tradescantia clone 4430 10 -15 cm long with inflorescences per treatment group.
- From each inflorescence, 4 -6 flower buds were removed, and 20 ul of test solution was applied in the resulting cup.
- Negative controls were citrate phosphate buffer pH 5.
- For each concentration, 10 flowers were scored daily. One or more contiguous pink cells were considered to have resulted from one mutation event.
- Frequency of mutations was expressed as the average percentage of pink mutations scored on days 9 -14 after treatment.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): m-phenylenediamine
- Physical state: Solid
- Purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA)

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:

Test substrate

Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Vehicle: 0.2 M citrate-phosphate buffer (pH = 5)

Test organisms

other: Tradescantia clone 4430
Details on test organisms:
Hybrid of T. subacaulis X T. hirsutiflora cultivated at the Institute of Experimental Botany, Prague

Study design

Test type:
other: Mutagenicity assay
Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
15 d
Post exposure observation period:
Mutations scored on days 9 - 14 post-exposure

Test conditions

Test temperature:
18-22° C
Details on test conditions:
Test system:
- Amount of soil: None
- No. of plants: 50 cuttings, 10-15 cm long, per treatment group
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 10 flowers scored daily for each concentration and control
- No. of replicates per vehicle control: Not specified

Growth conditions:
- Photoperiod: 18 h
- Day/night temperatures: 18-22° C
- Water source/type: Cuttings cultivated in beakers with tap water for 15 days

Vehicle control performed: yes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 mM m-phenylenediamine dissolved in 0.2 M citrate-phosphate buffer, plus control (citrate-phosphate buffer only).

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
other: Tradescantia clone 4430
Dose descriptor:
other: mutagenicity
Effect conc.:
other: positive
Basis for effect:
other: pink stamen hair mutations
other: Tradescantia clone 4430
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
> 300 other: mM
Basis for effect:
other: flowering repression
Details on results:
A concentration dependent increase in pink stamen hair mutations was seen in the concentration range of 25-300 mM m-phenylenediamine.
m-phenylenediamine was found to be toxic at concentrations above 300 mM, and repressed flowering.
At 300 mM, m-phenylenediamine induced approximately a 10-fold increase in the mutant frequency over the spontaneous control.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The statistical approach outlined by Underbrink et al. 1973 was used to analyze the data from the stamen hair assays.
ANOVA test was used to test for differences among treatment groups, and if a significant F value was obtained, each treatment group and its
corresponding negative control was tested for significance using Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons.
The mutagenic potency of m-phenylenediamine was 1.43 stamen hair mutants/umole.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Under the test conditions employed in this study, m-phenylenediamine was mutagenic in Tradescantia clone 4430 stame hair cells when compared to the control. The mutagenic potency of m-phenylenediamine was 1.43 stamen hair mutants/umole.

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