Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

When administered orally, the water soluble cadmium chloride caused mortality at relatively low doses, with LD50s in mouse and rat ranging from 29 to 327 mg Cd/kg bw. On this basis, cadmium chloride has been classified asT; R25 (toxic if swallowed) in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.Under GHS-CLP, the corresponding classification would be ‘Acute toxicity (oral) category 3;  H301’. Although no animal studies are available, cadmium sulphate is also classified in Annex I asT; R25, which is justified given its comparable solubility to cadmium chloride. Cadmium nitrate, also highly water soluble, is at present not classified for acute oral toxicity but a similar classification should be considered. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Endpoint conclusion
Dose descriptor:
LD50
225 mg/kg bw

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Endpoint conclusion
Dose descriptor:
LC50
56 mg/m³

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion

Additional information

When administered orally, the water soluble cadmium chloride caused mortality at relatively low doses, with LD50s in mouse and rat ranging from 29 to 327 mg Cd/kg bw. On this basis, cadmium chloride has been classified asT; R25 (toxic if swallowed) in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.Under GHS-CLP, the corresponding classification would be ‘Acute toxicity (oral) category 3; H301. Although no animal studies are available, cadmium sulphate is also classified in Annex I asT; R25, which is justified given its comparable solubility to cadmium chloride. Cadmium nitrate, also highly water soluble, is at present not classified for acute oral toxicity but a similar classification should be considered.

In humans, the no observed effect level (NOEL) of a single oral dose is estimated to be equivalent to3 mg Cd/person(i.e. 0.05 mg/kg bw for a 60 kg person) and the lethal dose is estimated to range from350 to 8,900 mg Cd/person (i.e. 5.8 to 148 mg/kg bw for a 60 kg person).

Cadmiumchloride and oxidehave a high acute toxicity by the inhalationroute. The most reliable result for these substances is the LC50 value of ca.56 x 10-3mg Cd/Lfrom the study of Ruschet al.(1986). Based on this values, the substances can be classified asT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). For cadmium carbonate, an LC50 of > 66x 10-3mg Cd/Lwas identified (Ruschet al.1986). If the value of 66x 10-3mg Cd/L is used in a conservative approach, the classification for cadmium carbonate would also beT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)according to Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). Based on the available data and read-across due to comparable toxicity and/or solubility / bioavailability,cadmiumsulphate and metal have been classified asT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). Based on comparable toxicity and/or solubility / bioavailability, all other highly and slightly soluble cadmium forms, i.e. cadmium nitrate, hydroxide and carbonate should carry a comparable classification.

For human health, observations indicatethat an 8 hour inhalatory exposure to 5 mg Cd/m3 is lethal and 1 mg Cd/m³is immediately dangerous for life.

No information was located regarding effects in humans after dermal exposure to cadmium. However, acute toxicity via the dermal route is not expected to be significant as uptake of soluble and less-soluble cadmium compounds applied onto the skin of animals appears to be low (<1%) (see Section 5.1.1).Also in view of the risk reduction measures which need to be taken as a result of the carcinogenicity of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, acute dermal toxicity is not likely to pose an issue for human health. No corresponding classification is therefore required.

Justification for classification or non-classification

When administered orally, the water soluble cadmium chloride caused mortality at relatively low doses, with LD50s in mouse and rat ranging from 29 to 327 mg Cd/kg bw. On this basis, cadmium chloride has been classified asT; R25(toxic if swallowed) in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.Under GHS-CLP, the corresponding classification would be ‘Acute toxicity (oral) category 3; H301. Although no animal studies are available, cadmium sulphate is also classified in Annex I asT; R25, which is justified given its comparable solubility to cadmium chloride. Cadmium nitrate, also highly water soluble, is at present not classified for acute oral toxicity but a similar classification should be considered.

Cadmiumchlorideand oxidehave a high acute toxicity by theinhalationroute. The most reliable result for these substances is the LC50 value of ca.56 x 10-3mg Cd/Lfrom the study of Ruschet al.(1986). Based on this values, the substances can be classified asT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). For cadmium carbonate, an LC50 of > 66x 10-3mg Cd/Lwas identified (Ruschet al.1986). If the value of 66x 10-3mg Cd/L is used in a conservative approach, the classification for cadmium carbonate would also beT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)according to Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). Based on the available data and read-across due to comparable toxicity and/or solubility / bioavailability,cadmiumsulphate and metal have been classified asT+; R26(Very toxic by inhalation)in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification isAcute toxicity (inhalation) category 2;H330). Based on comparable toxicity and/or solubility / bioavailability, all other highly and slightly soluble cadmium forms, i.e. cadmium nitrate, hydroxide and carbonate should carry a comparable classification.

For human health, observations indicatethat an8 hour inhalatory exposureto5 mg Cd/m3is lethal and1 mg Cd/m³is immediately dangerous for life.

No information was located regarding effects in humans after dermal exposure to cadmium. However, acute toxicity via the dermal route is not expected to be significant as uptake of soluble and less-soluble cadmium compounds applied onto the skin of animals appears to be low (<1%) (see Section 5.1.1).Also in view of the risk reduction measures which need to be taken as a result of the carcinogenicity of cadmium metal and some ofthecadmium compounds, acute dermal toxicity is not likely to pose an issue for human health. No corresponding classification is therefore required.