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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

short-term toxicity to birds: acute oral toxicity test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study was conducted according to published methods but not using available guidelines or GLP. Minimal details provided regarding experimental methods and results.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute oral toxicity test using multiple chemicals in several avian species. The chemicals were suspended in propylene glycol. Other dosing methods were occasionally used (pellets, gelatin capsules) but are not noted in the tables.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Details on test material:
- Purity: Not reported
Dose method:
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on preparation and analysis of diet:
The chemicals included technical and analytical grade, pesticidal, pharmaceutical and other commercial or experimental compounds. The chemicals were suspended in propylene glycol. Other dosing methods were occasionally used (pellets, gelatin capsules) but are not noted in the tables.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Redwing blackbird
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Redwing blackbird
- Source: wild-trapped birds and domestic
- Acclimation: Wild-trapped birds were pre-conditioned to captivity for 2 to 6 weeks.

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
100 mg/kg bw
Further details on results:
The table presents tabulated listing of the acute oral toxicity (LD50) of the chemical plus the avian repellency values (R50) and the toxicity-repellency index for redwings. Redwings were significantly more sensitive than starlings (p = 0.001), and that starlings and coturnix were not different (p = 0.05). The difference in toxicological sensitivity between redwings and starlings was 2.1x and the difference between coturnix and redwings was 1.4x. Statistical comparisons of the correlation between redwings LD50’s and R50’s were made to determine the validity of observations made over the past 20 years indicating that avian repellent activity appears to increase with increasing acute oral toxicity. Of the 998 chemicals tested, redwing R50’s and LD50’s are presented for 836. Of the 836, R50 and LD50 values for 501 chemicals (60%) were both or greater than selected minimum activity levels (1.00% for R50 and 100 mg/kg or (90 mg/kg) for LD50), 84 (10.1%) were repellent at or below 1.00% but toxic above 100 mg/kg, 75 (8.9%) were toxic at or below 100 mg/kg but repellent above 1.00%, 41 (4.9%) were not usable and 135 (16.2%) possessed activity in the range (R50 ≤ 1.00%, LD50 ≤ 100 mg/kg) that could be used to examine the relationship between these two factors. However, neither Pearson nor Spearman correlation coefficients (0.33 and 0.43, respectively) showed any positive correlation between R50’s and LD50’s. Thus, the data indicated that gross acute toxicity, as defined by the LD50, is not positively to gross repellency, as defined by the R50, at least over the small range examined.

The repellency/toxicity index or acute avian hazard index was calculated where one or both R50 and LD50 were known. Of the 223 chemicals for which definite index values could be calculated, 124 fell into the > 1.00 class, 47 into the ≥ 0.25 ≤ 1.00 class, and 52 in the < 0.25 class. This index appears to have great potential for predicting those chemicals that may cause acute avian poisoning episodes in the field.

Any other information on results incl. tables


CAS Registry number

Other Published LD50 (mg/kg) (no citation provided)

Redwinged blackbird R50 (%)

R50 (mg/kg)

Hazard factor




+ 1.00

+ 76.9

+ 0.769

Applicant's summary and conclusion

This study established an R50 for the test substance in redwing blackbirds of 76.9 mg/kg.