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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Acute toxicity, irritation and sensitisation data for copper dichloride have been read across from the closely analogous substance copper chloride. These substances are chemically similar; copper dichloride contains only cupric copper and ionic chlorine, whereas copper chloride contains cuprous copper and ionic chlorine. Available data on (cuprous) dicopper oxide and (cupric) copper oxide show that cuprous copper is inherently more acutely toxic and irritant than the cupric form (neither compound is a skin sensitiser). The results of an acute oral toxicity test available in the public literature (Singh and Junnarkar, 1991) confirm that this principle can also be applied to the cuprous and cupric chlorides. On this basis, and in order to minimise animal testing, a worst-case approach has been adopted in which data generated using copper choride has been directly read across to copper dichloride.

Acute oral toxicity:

The acute oral LD50 of copper dichloride to the rat was reported in a public domain to be 584 mg/kg bw (Singh and Junnarkar, 1991). Copper dichloride is therefore classified as follows on the basis of acute oral toxicity:

  • According to Directive 67/548/EEC: Harmful (Xn). R22, Harmful if swallowed.
  • According to CLP/GHS: Acute Tox. 4, H302: Harmful if swallowed.

This classification is supported by the result of a study in the rat with the analogous compound copper chloride, for which the LD50 was reported to be approximately 336 mg/kg bw (BASF AG, 1978a).

Acute inhalation toxicity:

A waiver has been provided for acute inhalation toxicity. Consideration of the available information against EU classification criteria leads to the conclusion that copper dichloride does not require classification for acute inhalation effects.

Acute dermal toxicity:

A GLP-compliant acute dermal toxicity study was carried out according to internationally accepted guidelines in the rat with the analogous compound copper chloride (NIER, 2003). The LD50 of the test item in males and females respectively was >2000 mg/kg bw and 1224 mg/kg bw. Copper dichloride is therefore classified as follows on the basis of acute dermal toxicity:
  • According to Directive 67/548/EEC: Harmful (Xn). R21, Harmful in contact with skin.
  • According to CLP/GHS: Acute Tox. 4, H312: Harmful in contact with skin.

These classification criteria are applicable to anhydrous and hydrated forms of the compound.

Justification for classification or non-classification

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