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Toxicological information

Additional toxicological data

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Administrative data

additional toxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)

Data source

Reference Type:
Effects of chronic high-level manganese exposure on male behaviour in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Laskey JW and Edens FW
Bibliographic source:
Poultry Science, 64: 579-584

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Reproductive/developmental toxicity
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study was designed to determine whether chronic dietary Mn exposure at high dietary levels would retard reproductive development in the Japanese quail. Male Japanese quail were chronically exposed to 5000 ppm manganese (Mn) as particulate Mn3O4 in their diet from hatching to 75 days of age.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Trimanganese tetraoxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Trimanganese tetraoxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
trimanganese tetraoxide
Details on test material:

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

No decrements in growth or in other indices of general toxicity were noted. There were significant (P<0.05) age-related increases in general locomotor activity in the control group, although no significant (0.05 < P < 0.10) increases were seen in the Mn-treated group. Both control and Mn-treated groups had significant (P<0.5) age-related increases in aggressive behaviour with an overall significant (P<0.05) treatment-related depression. Serum testosterone concentration was only slightly depressed (0.5 < P < 0.01) in the 75 day-old, Mn-treated quail. Both the control and Mn-treated qualil had higher liver Mn concentrations than previously Mn in their livers than similarly treated rodents.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

This study indicated that the Japanese quail were not sensitive to Mn3O4 exposure.