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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

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Description of key information

Bioaccumulation refers to uptake from all environmental sources including water, food and sediment.
Sulphuric acid, compound with graphite is an inorganic solid, consisting of natural graphite and variable amounts of intercalated sulphuric acid.
Graphite is a naturally occurring substance, which is insoluble in water and not bioavailable; it does not cross biological membranes and is not systemically available.
The intercalated sulphuric acid is partially leached out by water and dissociated into the environmentally ubiquitous sulphate and hydronium ions. This total ionisation makes the accumulation in living tissues unlikely. Furthermore sulphate is a normal biological metabolite and also a degradation product of sulphur-containing amino-acids.
Due to the inorganic character of the substance and the absence of intrinsically lipophilic functional groups, which would facilitate the diffusion across biological surfaces (e. g. the fish gill or digestive tract epithelium), a biological uptake via membranes can therefore be excluded. Referring to this uptake, bioaccumulation and a subsequent biomagnification, which might lead to adverse effects along the food chain, is not given.
Relevant exposure of the soil compartment is unlikely regarding the use of sulphuric acid compound with graphite. Production and use of sulphuric acid compound with graphite only take place at a small number of industrial sites with very low releases of sulphuric acid compound with graphite to the environment or to waste water streams and with low probability of any significant release to the environment from products. Even in case of accidental release and exposure, bioaccumulation is considered not to take place.
Against this background and due to the physical-chemical properties of sulphuric acid compound with graphite performance of a study on terrestrial bioaccumulation is not required under Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH).

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