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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1979-04-11 to 1979-04-25
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: APHA (1975) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th edition. US EPA (1975) Methods for acute toxicity test with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians (EPA-660/3-75-009).
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 204 (Fish, Prolonged Toxicity Test: 14-day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
no range finding test was conducted
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentration

- Sampling method: concentrations were determined on days 0, 1, 5, 10 and 14.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)

- Method: mechanically dissolved in deionised water
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: rainbow trout

- Source: Test fish were obtained from Spring Creek Hatchery, Lewiston, Montana.

- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): initial mean standard length of 33 mm.

- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): initial mean weight of 0.64 g

- Feeding during test: no data


ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: Acclimated to test conditions for at least 14 days.

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Fish culture techniques were those described in Brauhn et al. (1975)
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Post exposure observation period:
none reported
Hardness:
240 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 +/- 1 degree C. 
pH:
The pH of the test media ranged between 6.3 in the high concentration to 7.9 in the control.
Dissolved oxygen:
>7.5 mg/L
Salinity:
Not Applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations were 19, 42, 80, 163 and 320 mg/L (active acid). 
Mean measured concentrations were 19, 47, 94, 196 and 390 mg/L (active acid).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test vessel:

- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 30L glass test aquaria

- Aeration: aerated well water

- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): Mount & Brung proportional diluter

- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): replacement rate of 200 ml/min/test vessel. 

- No. of organisms per vessel: 30

- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1

- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1



TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source/preparation of dilution water: ABC laboratories well water

- Metals: all <0.1 mg/L

- Alkalinity: 360 mg/L as CaCO3

- Culture medium different from test medium: no

- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, and ammonia were measured on days 0, 1, 5, 10, and 14 in control, low concentration, and high concentration samples. The values were all acceptable.



OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Photoperiod: 16h day light



EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): weight of fish were measured at the beginning and the end of the test, mortality and abnormal behaviour were checked every 24 h.



TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
160 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CL 130-190)
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
47 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
150 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Although only 10% mortality was observed at 94 mg/l, all test fish at this concentration exhibited partial loss of equilibrium within 30 minutes after beginning the test. As the test was extended, this group recovered from the apparent initial shock of toxicant exposure and responded normally for the duration of the test.

- Observations on body length and weight: the study yielded the following weight percentages of the control group mean weight: 19mg/L - 113%, 47 mg/L - 107%, 94 mg/L - 93% and 196 mg/L - 63%. The average weight of the control group at the end of the test showed a 59% increase in the growth when compared with the representative group of fish at the beginning of the test.

- Mortality of control: 0%
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 and 95% confidence intervals determined by the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon.

Result expressed as measured concentration

24 - 72 hr LC50: 180 mg (active acid)/L
Day 4 - Day 8 LC50: 160 mg (active acid)/L
Day 9 - Day 14 LC50: 150 mg (active acid)/L

Validity criteria fulfilled:
no
Conclusions:
A 96 h LC50 value of 160 mg/L (as active acid) has been determined for the effects of the test substance on mortality of S. gairdneri (now known as Onychorhynchus mykiss). Also a 14 day NOEC of 47 mg active acid/L and a 14 day LC50 of 150 mg active acid/L have been determined for the effects of the test substance on mortality of S. gairdneri (now known as O. mykiss).
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2003-11-28 to 2003-12-19
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: PARCOM 1995 part B
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
no range finding test, no determination of the test substance in solution
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: sheepshead minnow

- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms


ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: 13.11.03 to 19.12.03

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): synthetic seawater, 17.6-22.4 degC, salinity 33%o, DO >60%, flow-through

- Feeding frequency: at least once per working day

- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): 0%
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
Not reported
Test temperature:
19 +/- 1 degC
pH:
range: 8.1-8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
range: 95-100%
Salinity:
range: 3.2-3.5 %o
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test vessel: not reported, assumed to be according to guideline

- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): not reported, assumed to be according to guideline

- No. of organisms per vessel: 10

- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1

- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1



TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source/preparation of dilution water: reference sea water was bought from Bjolsen Akvarium AS

- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH, DO, salinity and temperature were measured daily in all treatments.



EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortality at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 3

- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: none given

- Range finding study

- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: range finding test with S. costatum, test concentrations based on findings, no further details reported.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
3,5-dichlorophenol (2.3 mg/L)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 400 - 500 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: ATMP 5Na salt
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 282 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: 0%
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes, valid if mortality 20-80%

- Mortality: 20% after 96 h
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a Logistic Regression Model.

After 24 h 1 individual died in the highest treatment. This was the only death recorded.

Result expressed as nominal concentration. Properties of the test substance and evidence from other studies (where concentrations were 

measured) indicate that nominal and measured concentrations are likely to be in good agreement.

The study reports results as whole substance tested. However for the purpose of the risk characterisation conversion of results into acid and salt of ATMP equivalent was required. This was achieved by using the reported active acid content of the substance (28.2%) and the known ATMP 5 Na salt content of the test substance (ca. 40 -50%).

Therefore:

test substance 96 h LC50 = >1000 mg/L

ATMP acid 96 h LC50 = >282 mg/L (1000*28.2%)

ATMP 5Na salt 96 h LC50 = >400 -500 mg/L [1000*(40%-50%)]

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 value of >400-500 mg/L has been determined for the effects of ATMP 5Na salt on the mortality of the marine fish C. variegatus. A 96 h LC50 value of >282 mg/L has also been determined for the effects of ATMP as active acid on the mortality of the marine fish C. variegatus.

Description of key information

(96 h) LC50 160 mg active acid/L Salmo gairdneri (now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss)

(96 h) LC50 >282 mg active acid/L Cyprinodon variegatus

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
160 mg/L

Additional information

A reliable 96 h LC50 value of 160 mg/L (as active acid) has been determined for the effects of ATMP-H on mortality of Salmo gairdneri (now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss).

A 96 h LC50 value of >400-500 mg/L has been determined for the effects of ATMP-5Na salt on the mortality of the marine fish Cyprinodon variegatus. This corresponds to a 96 h LC50 value of >282 mg/L (as active ATMP acid) based on the active acid content (28.2%) reported in the test report. The study was conducted with ATMP-5Na (CAS 2235-43-0). The result is expressed in terms of active acid and therefore no adjustment to the EC50 value was necessary for read-across.

The results of tests conducted on ATMP and its salts are directly comparable, because the ionisation state will depend only on the pH of the test medium. The counter ion is not considered to contribute to effects in fish. ATMP will be ionised typically four or five times at environmentally-relevant pH values and will form stable complexes with metal ions.

The results reflect the lowest values that are available for this endpoint.