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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data from conference poster, full study not available. Test item was titanium dioxide, which is considered the relevant transformation product of target substance titanium oxide sulphate when in contact with humidity.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
other: conference poster
Title:
Toxicity of seven different nanoparticles to Eisenia fetida.
Author:
Heckman et al
Year:
2008
Bibliographic source:
SETAC 25-29 May, 2008, Warsaw, Poland

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 222 (Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei))
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Titanium dioxide
EC Number:
236-675-5
EC Name:
Titanium dioxide
Cas Number:
13463-67-7
IUPAC Name:
dioxotitanium
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Rutile (TiO2)
EC Number:
215-282-2
EC Name:
Rutile (TiO2)
Cas Number:
1317-80-2
IUPAC Name:
dioxotitanium
Details on test material:
- Molecular formula (as other than submission substance): TiO2
- Molecular weight (as other than submission substance): 79.899 g/mol
- Smiles notation (as other than submission substance): [Ti](=O)=O
- InChl (as other than submission substance): InChI=1/2O.Ti/rO2Ti/c1-3-2
- Structural formula attached as image file (as other than submission substance): O=Ti=O

* TiO2 nanoparticles (from Evonik Degussa), nominal particle size 21 nm, surface area 50 m²/g.
* bulk TiO2
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
JUSTIFICATION FOR READ ACROSS
In the present study the soil was spiked with test surrogate titanium dioxidewhich is the substance formed by hydrolysis of the target chemical.
OECD TGD 222 (2004) recommends “The soil pH should not be adjusted when acidic or basic substances are tested“. Therefore the other final hydrolysis product sulphuric acid should be included in the assessment according to the relevant test guidelines, even though sulphate is non-toxic and with regard to the rather high natural background concentrations irrelevant.
As sulphuric acid fully dissociates, the substance itself will not reach the terrestrial environment except via direct exposure, which is not expected in quantities exceeding the soil buffering capacity. In conclusion the test was conducted with the relevant transformation product.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
4 wk
Post exposure observation period:
hatching of produced cocoons was monitored during the following 4 weeks

Test conditions

Details on test conditions:
4 replicates
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 1000 mg/kg dry soil

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
4 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
bulk TiO2
Basis for effect:
other: cocoon production
Duration:
8 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
bulk TiO2
Basis for effect:
other: hatchability and juvenile production
Duration:
8 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 2 002 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
other: target compound titanium oxide sulphate
Basis for effect:
other: hatchability and juvenile production
Remarks on result:
other: Converted from 12.5 mmol TiO2 corresponding to 1000 mg (MW TiO2 = 79.899 g/mol, MW TiOSO4 = 159.93 g/mol)
Details on results:
data derived from graph
The nanoparticles tested in parallel showed no effects on the 4 wk cocoon production (± 20% effect variability)), but 8 wk hatchability and juvenile production were hampered (± 25 and 50% effect variability)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The study indicates no chronic toxic effects to soil macroorganisms exposed to microdisperse matter.
Executive summary:

The chronic toxicity of titanium dioxide to earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction was studied in a limit test according to the OECD TGD 222 protocol.

In the present study the water was spiked with test surrogate titanium dioxide which is the stable, final hydrolysis product when bringing target chemical titanium oxide sulphate in contact with humidity. Recalculation of the measured value was made on an isomolar basis as the analogue material results from isomolar transformation of the target chemical.

The insoluble test item was applied in one concentration of nominal 1000 mg/kg soil dw. The loading is far above the water solubility of the test article, which is about 1 µg/L. No analytical dose verification was performed. The test organisms were during 8 weeks exposed to bulk or nanoscaled test article. Cocoon production was assessed after 4 weeks and hatchability and juvenile production after 8 weeks.

The bulk material exhibited no effects. While the nanoparticles tested in parallel showed no effects on the 4 wk cocoon production (± 20% effect variability, as data derived from graph), the 8 wk hatchability and juvenile production were hampered (± 25 and 50% effect variability.

In the highest concentration corresponds to 2002 mg/kg soil dw of the target compound titanium oxide sulphate. As it is assessed that the titanium dioxide formed by hydrolysis is unlikely to reach the soil in nanoscaled crystalline particle form, it is concluded that no hazard exists with regard to the target chemical. Thus no threshold concentration for titanium oxide sulphate can be derived. Nonetheless the study could indicate that crystalline nanoparticles may have and impact of the reproduction of soil macroorganisms such as earthworms.

In conclusion the study indicates no chronic toxic effects to soil macroorganisms exposed to microdisperse matter.