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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
other: Known constituent approach
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Cinnamon leaf oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS). With 94.5% of the constituents of Cinnamon leaf oil known, this NCS can be considered as a well defined NCS. Cinnamon leaf oil consists for 70 to 85% of eugenol and a variety of minor constituents. If the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 302 C (Inherent Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (II))
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.4-E (Determination of the "Ready" Biodegradability - Closed Bottle Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Assessment of the Ready biodegradability of the known constituents; In the constituent approach (See Statement NCS protocol) for this purpose the NCS is considered as a mixture. For classification and labelling of the NCS, a summation approach is be applied as described for mixtures in the DPD and new Global Harmonization System (e.g. R53 or a GHS chronic classification if the sum of the percentages of constituents that are not rapidly degraded is ≥ 25%). From there it may be concluded, vice versa, that if ≥ 75% of sum of the percentage of the constituents is readily biodegradable, the NCS as a whole may be classified as readily biodegradable.
GLP compliance:
no
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
mixture of sewage, soil and natural water
Remarks:
several guideline tests with different inocula were used
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
CO2 evolution
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
> 60
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Cinnamic aldehyde, Alpha Phellandrene, Alpha-Pinene, Eugenol
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
> 60
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Safrole, Linalool, Alpha Phellandrene, Benzyl benzoate, beta-carophyllene
Details on results:
Details for all constituents are summarised in window "Any other information on results" and in attached document

Assessment of the biodegradability of Cinnamon leaf oil:

Each of the identified constituents, totalling 94.5% of the typical composition, is readily biodegradable, see underlying data in table below.

Constituent

Typical %

Results of biodegradation assessment

Eugenol

75.3%

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

EU-C.4-E (Closed Bottle Test): 82% (Haarmann & Reimer,1999)

OECD 301B (Sealed CO2): 100.4% (Quest 1994

OECD 301F: 79% (7d) , 87% (28d) (Givaudan 1993)

Eugenyl acetate

3.3 %

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

Hydrolysis/cleavage to acetic acid and eugenol. Both transformation products are readily biodegradable

Benzyl benzoate

3.1 %

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C: 28d - BOD: 90%

Direct analysis: HPLC: 100%

(MITI 1996: http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/sitemap/db_map_e.html)

b-carophyllene

3.7 %

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD301F - 75% (Givaudan, 2007)

Alpha-Pinene

1.24%

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD301B, sealed vessels: 62% (28d), 70% (42d) (Astra Zeneca, 2001, ECB PBT#84

http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/PBT_EVALUATION/PBT_sum084_CAS_91770-80-8.pdf).

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C: 28d - BOD: 91, 90, 95%

Direct analysis: GC: 100, 100, 100%

(MITI 2007: http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/sitemap/db_map_e.html)

Alpha-Phellandrene

1.33 %

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

biodegradable based on structural analogy with terpinolene & d-limonene, see next rows

Both have the same carbon skeleton; the only difference is the position of the double bonds. This is not expected to affect the sensitivity to biodegradation in a significant way

Structural analogue:

D-limonene

--

Structural analogue of Alpha Phellandrene:

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- Headspace CO2: 71.4% (Quest 1993). The biodegradability of perfume ingredients in the sealed vessel test.

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C, improved for volatile substance:

Limonene 14d - BOD: 41, 81, 98%

Direct analysis: GC: 100%; TOC 50, 73, 81% (MITI 1980 http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/sitemap/db_map_e.html)

- Readily biodegradable (Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S. G.; Perdue, E. M.; Araujo, R. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1996), 45(6), 831-838.)

Structural analogue:

Terpinolene

--

Structural analogue of Alpha Phellandrene:

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

- OECD 301B (sealed): 62% (Quest 1996):

- OECD 301F: 51% (Givaudan, 1997)

- OECD 302C: 80% (Givaudan, 1998)

- Rapid primary degradation (Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S. G.; Perdue, E. M.; Araujo, R. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1996), 45(6), 831-838.)

Linalool

2.4 %

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301C: 80% (Givaudan 1991)

- OECD Modified 301B, sealed CO2: 97.1% (QUEST 1994)                              

- Readily biodegradable (Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S. G.; Perdue, E. M.; Araujo, R. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1996), 45(6), 831-838.) 

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C: 28d - BOD: 90%

Direct analysis: TOC 99% GC: 100%; (MITI 1996 http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/sitemap/db_map_e.html)

Safrole

0.9 %

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

read-across from Eugenol (top of table) & Heliotropin (see next row)

Supported by prediction from EPISuite/ BIOWIN v4.10 (March 2009): readily biodegradable in OECD 301C (MITI-test)

Structural analogue: Heliotropin

CAS nr 120-57-0

--

Structural analogue of Safrole

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

- OECD 301F: 82% (Givaudan 1998)

- OECD 301B (sealed CO2): 114% (Quest 1993)

Cinnamic aldehyde

1.3%

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

OECD 301B - CO2 evolution (Sealed vessel): 89% (7d), 94% (14d), 100% (21d, 27d, 28d)

Source: Robust Summaries for Cinnamyl Derivatives, FFHPVC Aromatic Consortium Registration Number, 201 – 15843B (OPPT 25 March 2005)

http://www.epa.gov/hpv/pubs/summaries/cinna/c12912rr.pdf

comm. Haarmann and Reimer (2001) to RIFM

Cinnamyl acetate

1.9%

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

According to the UM-BBD Pathway predictions (http://umbbd.ethz.ch/predict/),the ester bond will be broken (bt0024) and cinnamic alcohol will be formed which is readily biodegradable (see above)

EPIWIN predictions for c1ccccc1C=CCOC(=O)C:

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

BIOWIN2 0.9659

BIOWIN3 3.8273

BIOWIN6 0.7293

 

94.5%

Fraction of NCS readily biodegradable or expected to be readily biodegradable

 The complete asssessment is added attached to this study record. Studies mentioned by Company Name are included in the RIFM database.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Cinnamon leaf oil is considered as readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Cinnamon leaf oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) for which > 90% of the constituents is identified. The main constituent in Cinnamon leaf oil is Eugenol (range 70-85% of the composition). As no valid empirical results from a test for the ready biodegradation of Cinnamon leaf oil are available, the assessment is based on its constituents (maximum in composition at or above 1%). The assumption is that if the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.

With the exception of 3 minor constituents, for all constituents the available data are obtained in tests on the ready biodegradability. For the 3 minor constituents the ready biodegradability is based on structurally related substances.

 

The constituents, comprising 94.5% of the typical composition of this NCS, are in the category of ready biodegradable substances. Therefore, Cinnamon leaf oil is considered readily biodegradable.

 

 

Description of key information

Cinnamon leaf oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) with eugenol as the main constituent, ranging from 70 - 85%. The asssessment of the biodegradation of Cinnamon leaf oil is based on its constituents. All known constituents comprising 94.5% of the typical composition of this NCS are in the category of ready biodegradable substances. Therefore, Cinnamon leaf oil is considered readily biodegradable. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Cinnamon leaf oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) for which > 90% of the constituents is identified. The main constituent in Cinnamon Leaf Oil is Eugenol (range 70-85%). As no valid empirical results from a test for the ready biodegradation of Cinnamon leaf oil are available, the assessment is based on its constituents (maximum present at or above 1% of the composition). The assumption is that if the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.

With the exception of 3 minor constituents, for all constituents the available data are obtained in tests on the ready biodegradability. For the minor constituents the conclusion on their ready biodegradability is based on structurally related substances.

Thus all known constituents comprising 94.5% of the typical composition of this NCS are in the category of ready biodegradable substances and therefore Cinnamon leaf oil is considered to be readily biodegradable.

A statement on the use of the protocol for Registration of Natural Complex Substance (NCS) under REACH has been attached to the dossier.