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Available reliable ecotoxicity results selected for the assessment of vanadium toxicity to aquatic organisms based on pentavalent V substances (NaVO3, Na3VO4, NH4VO3, NH4V3O8, V2O5) and dissolved elemental V concentrations were grouped together.

Reliable short-term toxicity data for freshwater organisms are available for three trophic levels: aquatic invertebrates, fish and algae. The lowest acute effect value is the 96-h LC50 of 693 µg V/L observed for the effect of V2O5 flakes on mortality of the fish Leuciscus idus.

Acute toxicity data are also available for marine fish and invertebrates, with the lowest acute effect 48-h LC50 value of 13300 µg V/L for the mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia.

Reliable long-term toxicity data are available for 17 freshwater organisms covering the three trophic levels. The lowest chronic NOEC/EC10 value of 50 µg V/L was observed for the effect of NaVO3 in a 21-day reproduction test with neonates of the aquatic invertebrate Daphnia dentifera. Regarding the minimum requirement of 10 chronic NOEC values (preferably more than 15) and the representation of taxonomic groups, the data are sufficient for the derivation of the PNECfreshwater using the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution, SSD) in accordance with ECHA’s Guidance on IR & CSA, R. (ECHA, 2008).

Reliable long-term toxicity data are also available for the effect of V2O5 on the development of eggs from two marine organisms (mollusc Crassostrea gigas and echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus). The NOEC values range from 25 to 50 µg V/L with the lowest value observed for the 48-h development test of Crassostrea gigas eggs.


The lowest reliable toxicity data for each trophic level are tabulated below.

Trophic level  Substance  Species Parameter Endpoint  Value(µg V/L)  Reference
 Acute toxicity, freshwater                
 Fish  V2O5  Leuciscus idus  mortality   96-h LC50   693  Mitterer, 1999
 Invertebrates   V2O5  Daphnia magna  mortality   48-h LC50   1520  Kimball, 1978
 Algae   V2O5 Scenedesmus subspicatus   growth rate  72-h EC50  2907  Mitterer, 1999
 Acute toxicity, marine water               


 Limanda limanda  mortality  96 -h LC50  27800  Taylor et al., 1985
 Invertebrates  NaVO3  Americamysis bahia  mortality  48-h LC50  13300 Woods et al., 2004
 Chronic toxicity, freshwater              
 Fish  V2O5  Jordanella floridae  growth  30d-EC10  76  Holdway and Sprague, 1979
 Invertebrates  NaVO3  Daphnia dentifera reproduction  21d EC10  50  Schiffer and Liber, 2017
 Algae  NaVO 3  Scenedesmus quadricauda  growth rate 72 -h EC10  270  Schiffer and Liber, 2017
 Chronic toxicity, marine water    
 Invertebrates  V2O5  Crassostrea gigas  development of eggs 48h NOEC 25   Fichet and Miramand, 1998