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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles.

Data source

Reference Type:
Hydrocarbon nephropathy in male rats: identification of the nephrotoxic components of unleaded gasoline.
Halder CA, et al. (1985)
Bibliographic source:
Toxicol. Ind. Health 1:67-87

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
other: as detailed in publication
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Cas Number:
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
unleaded gasoline
unleaded gasoline
Test material form:
other: low viscosity liquid hydrocarbon
Details on test material:
See attachment for details of paraffins, naphthenes, olefines, aromatics, indans/tetralins, naphthalenes and Carbon number
Chemical composition of representative naphtha refinery streams using blending unleaded gasoline.

Test animals

Fischer 344

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
unchanged (no vehicle)
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 days
Frequency of treatment:
once daily, 5 days per week
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Doses / Concentrations:
500 mg/kg/day
actual ingested
Doses / Concentrations:
2000 mg/kg/day
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 rats/dose
Control animals:

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not specified
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY: There were no deaths. The dosages were well tolerated, with lethargy being the prominent clinical sign of toxicity.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN: The high dose group exhibited statistically significantly lower body weight gains than the saline control group.

GROSS PATHOLOGY: The most common pathologic findings were confined to the kidneys, stomachs, and, to a lesser degree, the livers. Stomach lesions appeared related to the irritant effect of the hydrocarbons on the stomach lining. Such lesions included erythema, erosion of the gastric mucosa, rasied discolored foci on the gastric epithelial lining and ulceration. The severity and incidence of these lesions were generally dose-related.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC: Renal: The test material induced a strong nephrotoxic response at both doses which was characterized by (a) hyaline droplet accumulation in the cytoplasm of epithelial lining cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, (b) degeneration or regeneration of the epithelial cells in the renal cortex, and (c) the development of granular proteinaceous casts in the lumina of tubules located between the inner and outer stripe of the medulla.

Effect levels

Remarks on result:
other: see Details on results

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The procedure was designed to investigate hydrocarbon nephropathy. Unleaded gasoline was used as positive control.
Executive summary:

Four naphtha streams, among fifteen hydrocarbon compounds, were administered to two groups of male Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage at the dose levels of 500 mg/kg/day and 2000 mg/kg/day five days per week for four weeks. The procedure was designed to investigate hydrocarbon nephropathy. Animals in both groups experienced lethargy and significantly lower body weight gain was observed in the animals at the high-dose group. The only histopathological difference found was in the kidneys of all male rats. The kidney effects observed in male rats are indicative of alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy. These kidney effects are specific to male rats and are not considered to be of biological relevance to humans. Unleaded gasoline induced a strong nephrotoxic response.