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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to other aquatic organisms

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to other aquatic vertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: See 'Remarks'
Remarks:
The test methodology is not described in sufficient detail and the test did not follow a guideline protocol. No information is provided on the natural variation of developmental malformations in the tested species, which makes evaluation of observed effects difficult. Replication is very low, assuming that tests were only performed twice with one replicate per test concentration. Observations regarding survival of embryos (incl. control survival) are not reported in detail.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Developmental toxicity of chromium(III) sulfate to three different species of amphibians (frog: Rana esculenta; newts:Triturius vulgaris meridionalis and Pleurodeles waltl) were determined by exposing embyros at the early blastula (stage 4) up to the stage of hatching (170 h in newts; 120 h in frogs).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Samples of all test solutions were taken prior to test start
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Controls: Negative control
Aquatic vertebrate type (other than fish):
other: Newts and Frogs
Test organisms (species):
other: Triturus vulgaris meridionalis, Pleurodeles walti, Rana esculenta
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Newts: Common newt (Lissotriton vulgaris, formerly Triturus vulgaris), Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl); Frogs: edible frog (Rana esculenta)
- Source: Triturus vulgaris meridionalis and Rana esculenta complex were freshly collected near Pisa; Pleurodeles waltl was obtained from Prof. J.-C. Lacroix (Paris).
- Age at study initiation: Embryos at early blastula stage 4
- Method of breeding: Adult specimens were housed at 18±2°C in aquaria on a 16 h light and 8 h dark photoperiod. Embryos used in this study were obtained by artificial fertilization. Fertilized eggs from P. waltl were obtained by induced breeding.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
170 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Embryos were exposed up to hatching (170 h in newts and 120 h in frogs)
Test temperature:
18±2°C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0.00015, 0.0015, 0.015, 0.15, 1.5 mM Cr(III)
(= 0.0078, 0.078, 0.78, 7.8, 78.0 mg Cr(III)/L)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Petri dish
- No. of organisms per vessel: 15
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): ≥ 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): ≥ 2

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): Embryo survival and developmental abnormalities
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
120 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.78 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cr
Basis for effect:
other: developmental malformations
Remarks on result:
other: Rana esculenta
Duration:
120 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
7.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cr
Basis for effect:
other: developmental malformations
Remarks on result:
other: Rana esculenta
Duration:
170 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.008 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cr
Basis for effect:
other: developmental malformations
Remarks on result:
other: Triturius vulgaris meridionalis
Duration:
170 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
7.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cr
Basis for effect:
other: developmental malformations
Remarks on result:
other: Pleurodeles waltl
Duration:
170 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
78 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cr
Basis for effect:
other: developmental malformations
Remarks on result:
other: Pleurodeles waltl
Details on results:
- Other biological observations: The concentration of 0.15 mM of Cr(III) induces serious malformations starting from early neurula in embryos of T. v. meridionalis, while it does not significantly affect development of P. waltl embryos. The embryos of Rana show an intermediate response to this treatment. The lowest concentrations of chromium(I/I) tested in our experiments (0.00015, 0.0015 and 0.015 mM) do not affect the development of P. waltl and Rana, while they induce a wide range of malformations in embryos of T. v. meridionalis. The treated embryos show a concentration-related pattern of severe anomalies, the most frequent of which are ocular, skeletal, ventral and caudal deformities.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Analysis of variance and multiple comparisons using SNK test were performed with Statistica 5.0 software for MS-DOS.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Fertilized embryos of newts and frogs were exposed to chromium(III) sulphate concentrations ranging from 0.0078 to 78.0 mg/L. The embryos were exposed up to the point of hatching and the survival rate and malformations during development were documented. Serious malformations were observed in all species: For the newt species Triturius vulgaris meridionalis effects were observed already at the lowest test concentration (170 h LOEC: 0.0078 mg Cr/L (nominal)), while Pleurodeles waltl was affected only at 78.0 mg/L (170 h NOEC: 7.8 mg Cr/L (nominal)). The frog Rana esculenta showed significant malformations at 7.8 and 78.0 mg cr/L, thus a 120 h NOEC of 0.78 mg Cr/L (nominal) can be derived.

Description of key information

Additional information

One supporting study (Klimisch 3) on the toxicity to other aquatic vertebrates is available:

The developmental toxicity of chromium (III) sulfate to three different species of amphibians (frog: Rana esculenta; newts:Triturius vulgaris meridionalis and Pleurodeles waltl) was determined by exposing embyros at the early blastula (stage 4) up to the stage of hatching (170 h in newts; 120 h in frogs) (Calevro et al., 1998). Fertilized embryos of newts and frogs were exposed to chromium (III) sulphate concentrations ranging from 0.0078 to 78.0 mg/L up to hatching. Survival rate and malformations during the development were documented. Serious malformations were observed in all species: For the newt T. vulgaris meridionalis, effects were observed already at the lowest test concentration (170 h LOEC: 0.0078 mg Cr/L (nominal)) whereas P. waltl was affected at 78.0 mg/L (170 h NOEC: 7.8 mg Cr/L (nominal)). Significant malformations of the frog R. esculenta were reported at 7.8 and 78.0 mg cr/L, thus a 120 h NOEC of 0.78 mg Cr/L (nominal) can be derived. The study and obtained results are however regarded as supporting only, since the tests cannot be considered reliable due to the shortcomings.