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Toxicological information

Epidemiological data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
epidemiological data
Type of information:
other: Review of published data
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Variable
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Critical literature studies are reported in summary form

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Toxicological profile for chromium
Author:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Year:
2000
Bibliographic source:
US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, ATSDR

Materials and methods

Study type:
other: 10-year health survey
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Review of literature studies investigating teh health effects ofexposure to chromium (III) compounds
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Further details on test material were not provided.

Method

Type of population:
other: housewives living near a construction site
Details on study design:
Housewives who lived in an area of Tokyo, Japan, in which contamination from a chromium slag at a construction site was discovered in 1973. Questionnaires, physical examinations, and clinical tests were conducted annually.
Exposure assessment:
not specified
Details on exposure:
The housewives in the study were those who lived in the area from 1978 to 1988, and controls included housewives who lived in uncontaminated areas.

Results and discussion

Results:
Chest x-rays, pulmonary function tests, blood pressure determinations, clinical chemistry tests for liver function, and urinalysis revealed no significant difference between the exposed and the control populations. The exposed population reported a higher incidence of subjective complaints of nasal and eye irritation, diarrhoea and constipation than the control population in the early years of the study. Otolaryngological examinations revealed sporadic significant differences between the exposed and control populations.
Strengths and weaknesses:
There is no information on whether exposure was to hexavalent or trivalent chromium, or a mixture of both. Actual levels of chromium (VI) or chromium (III) exposure are unknown.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Mild irritation was seen in a 10-year survey of housewives exposed to chromium slag from a construction site in Tokyo, Japan.
Executive summary:

Although nasal and eye irritation and diarrhea were reported, these effects were mainly seen in the early years of the study. A clear association between otolaryngological effects and exposure to chromium could not be established during the study period.