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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Two reliable (Klimisch 1, guideline- and GLP-compliant) studies address the short-term toxicity of terephthalic acid to freshwater invertebrates.   
In the first study (Government of Japan, Ministry of the Environment, 2003b), Daphnia magna were exposed to high purity TPA (free acid), dosed from a stock solution prepared with DMSO, at a concentration intended to approximate to TPA's aqueous solubility limit. No toxicity was observed under these test conditions:
D. magna 48 -h EC50 (semi-static): >20.1 mg TPA/L, 48 -h NOEC: 20.1 mg TPA/L.
These endpoints are mean measured values and represent the maximum limit concentration achievable under the test conditions.
In the second study (Knacker et al., 1993b) TPA was first treated with NaOH solution, to convert the acid to its much more soluble sodium salt(s), and exposure in this study was consequently to sodium terephthalate (following neutralisation of excess alkali). No toxicity was observed under these conditions:
D. magna 48 -h EC50 (static): >967 mg TPA-equiv/L, 96 -h NOEC: 967 mg TPA-equiv/L;
These endpoints are mean measured values and represent the highest concentration applied.
Terephthalic acid and its more environmentally relevant terephthalate sodium salt exhibit very low short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

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