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As sulfur is highly insoluble in water (water solubility < 5 µg/l) the short and long term studies with fish, invertebrates, microorganisms and aquatic algae do not need to be conducted.

Nevertheless, supporting short-term toxicity studies are available. The 96 -hour LC0 of sulfur dust to Rainbow trout was determined to be at least up to the solubility limit of the test item in water. The NOEC and the LC0 might even be higher than this concentration, but concentrations in excess of the solubility limit have not been tested. The 96-hour LOEC, the 96-hour LC50 and the 96-hour LC100 were clearly higher than the solubility limit (Institut für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH, 2005a). The available long-term study with fish was not reliable.

An acute study on invertebrates is also available (Institute für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH, 2005b). After 24 hours and after 48 hours, the control and test concentration of 100 mg sulfur/l (nominal) did not cause a significant number of immobilised or dead organisms. The 48 hours EC50 is above the water solubility of 5 µg/l.

A long-term study on invertebrates is available (ChemService, 2008). The test item sulfur 98% DP caused no adverse effect toDaphnia magnareproductive capacity after 21-days exposure period at the nominal product concentration of 100 mg/l, corresponding to an actual concentration of 2.5 µg/l as active ingredient.

An algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus) inhibition test is available (Institute für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH, 2005c). The 72 hr NOEC, the EC10 and the EC50 values turned out to be higher than the water solubility limit of sulfur.

In a study onChironomus riparius(NOTOX, 2010) no reduction of emergence or development rate was observed at the measured initial sediment concentration of sulfur dust of 608 mg/kg d.w. (NOEC).

In a 14-day toxicity study on a soil oligochaete (Eisenia fetida), no mortality was observed in any treatment group and the body weight changes of the earthworms were not significantly different compared to the control up to and including the highest test concentration of 1000 mg sulfur/kg soil (Institute für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH, 2005d).

A field test study is available for assessment of terrestrial arthropods (BASF, 1988). The effect of sulfur onTyphlodromus pyriwas evaluated in 3 municipality tests and 6 BASF-tests in wine growing areas. The exposure duration was 60 days. Sulfur had no effects on populations ofTyphlodromus pyriat application rates of 1400 -1900 g/ha.

There are also three supporting laboratory studies which showed the following results:

The 7-day ER50 forTrichogramma cacoeciaeis 197.57 g/ha (GAB Biotechnologie GmbH & IFU Umweltanalytik GmbH 2003b).

The 7-day LR50 forTyphlodromus pyriis 10000 g/ha for mortality (Institute für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH 2005f).

The 48-hour LR50 forAphidius rhopalosiphiis 24860 g/ha (GAB Biotechnologie GmbH & IFU Umweltanalytik GmbH 2003a).

The 12 -day NOEC for reproduction ofAphidius rhopalosiphiis 25200 g/ha (GAB Biotechnologie GmbH & IFU Umweltanalytik GmbH 2003a).

 

A study investigating the effects on non-target plants in the greenhouse (limit test) is available (BASF, 2000). Test species were: Corn (Zea maysvariety: Dea); oat (Avena sativavariety: Flaemingsplus); onion (Allium cepavariety: Red Baron); cabbage (Brassica oleraceavariety: Hammer); pea (Pisum sativumvariety: Progress); and carrot (Daucus carotavariety: Romosa). The test substance was applied post emergence in the latest six weeks after seeding at growth stage BBCH 12 to 16 of the plants (depending on plant species). The application was done using a laboratory spray cabin which simulated an application in agricultural practice. Following the application the plants were cultivated for 14 days in the greenhouse.No visible phytotoxic effects were observed in any of the plant species tested up to a rate of 25.2 kg/ha. For all plant species the plant weight was at the same level as the weight of the control plants. No statistically significant differences to the control were observed.

 

Effects of sulfur dust on the activity of soil microflora in the laboratory were also studied (Institute für Biologische Analytik und Consulting IBACON GmbH, 2005e). Based on the results of the available study, sulfur dust has no impact on respiration activities (measured as effects of O2-consumption after 28 days of exposure; effects on NO3-nitrogen production after 28 days exposure)of soil microflora (biologically active agricultural soil: loamy sand) when applied up to400 mg/kgsoildry weight(corresponding to 10 times the maximum recommended application rate of 30 kg sulfur dust per ha).

The available acute oral toxicity study with Japanese Quail at a dose of 2000 mg sulfur /kg bw showed no toxic signs and pre-terminal deaths (Rallis Research Centre, 2005b) during the 14 days observation period.