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Particle size distribution (Granulometry)

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Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
7.3.2008-10.3.2008
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP-Guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ISO 13320-1 Particle size analysis - Laser diffraction methods
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
11.64 µm
Remarks on result:
other: Standard deviation not given
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
< 5.9 µm
St. dev.:
0.14
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
< 22.61 µm
St. dev.:
3.07

Measured values

The results of determination of particle size distribution test substance are presented in following table.

 

Table No. 1 Results of determination of particle size distribution

Determination

Median

m)

Diameter on Cumulative 90%

(µm)

Diameter on Cumulative 10%

(µm)

Span

(-)

1

11.86

28.22

5.88

1.88

2

11.37

21.88

5.67

1.43

3

11.64

22.61

5.90

1.44

4

11.47

21.93

5.71

1.41

5

11.88

27.85

5.86

1.85

6

11.69

22.01

6.06

1.36

Average

11.65

24.08

5.85

1.56

Standard deviation

0.21

3.07

0.14

0.24

 

The value nearest to average is used as final result of the test.That is the 3rdmeasurement.

Criteria of quality

The test satisfied quality criteria as follows:

The individual results of median (MMAD) from single testing should not vary more than 10 % from the average. For our measurements the calculated critical range is 12.82 to 10.48 µm.

We performed 6 measurements and the individual values fall within the range of quality criterion (actual range is 11.37 to 11.88).

The criterion of quality was met.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 2.69 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 18.87 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 57.74 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 103 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 631 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 11.7 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 6.61 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 44.29 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 139.2 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 246 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 2936 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 65.2 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 4.07 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 21.05 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 135.4 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 294 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 2673 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 103.7 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 2.24 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 18.7 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 135.66 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 246 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 1296 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 50.6 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 2.67 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 23.83 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 91.22 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 206 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 2669 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 97 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 2.45 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 15.42 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 78.68 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 206 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 1629 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 15.6 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 1.78 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 11.79 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 48.5 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 103 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 1637 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 15.9 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19.04.-03.05.2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-Part 2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
ca. 1.81 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
ca. 13.5 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
ca. 64.65 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined
Percentile:
other: D100
Mean:
ca. 123 µm
Remarks on result:
other: standard deviation not determined

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 2553 mg/kg. The median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) was reported as: 58.7 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication/study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-1
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-10
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 66145
GLP compliance:
no
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
No.:
#1
Size:
< 2 mm
Distribution:
ca. 10 %
No.:
#2
Size:
< 3 mm
Distribution:
ca. 20 %
No.:
#3
Size:
< 6 mm
Distribution:
ca. 42 %
No.:
#4
Size:
< 7 mm
Distribution:
ca. 50 %
No.:
#5
Size:
< 20 mm
Distribution:
100 %

The main part of the boiler slag is produced as sand/gravel grain with a diameter between 0.25 to 11 mm.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication/study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-1
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-10
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 66145
GLP compliance:
no
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
No.:
#1
Size:
< 0.2 mm
Distribution:
ca. 4 %
No.:
#2
Size:
< 0.45 mm
Distribution:
ca. 10 %
No.:
#3
Size:
< 0.6 mm
Distribution:
ca. 14 %
No.:
#4
Size:
< 2 mm
Distribution:
ca. 45 %
No.:
#5
Size:
< 2.5 mm
Distribution:
ca. 50 %
No.:
#6
Size:
< 6 mm
Distribution:
ca. 77 %
No.:
#7
Size:
< 20 mm
Distribution:
ca. 98 %
No.:
#8
Size:
< 30 mm
Distribution:
ca. 100 %

Bottom ash is generated depending on the grinding of the coal and the conditions of firing mostly in a particle size below 8 mm. The particle size distribution of bottom ash lies mostly in the size of sand with grain sizes below 2 mm and more than 0.063 mm. Fine-grained bottom ashes are below 1 mm, coarse-grained ashes maily below 8 mm. The width of particle size distribution differs from various plants.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication/study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-1
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-10
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 66145
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Laser granulometer used.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
No.:
#1
Size:
> 1 µm
Distribution:
98.1 %
No.:
#2
Size:
> 5 µm
Distribution:
90 %
No.:
#3
Size:
> 10 µm
Distribution:
80.2 %
No.:
#4
Size:
> 20 µm
Distribution:
62.5 %
No.:
#5
Size:
> 27.785 µm
Distribution:
50 %
No.:
#6
Size:
> 40 µm
Distribution:
37.4 %
No.:
#7
Size:
> 60 µm
Distribution:
28.6 %
No.:
#8
Size:
> 80 µm
Distribution:
22.4 %
No.:
#9
Size:
> 90 µm
Distribution:
19.5 %
No.:
#10
Size:
> 100 µm
Distribution:
16.8 %

Fly ashes of the brown coal have a particel size distribution mainly in the area of clay / sand.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication/study report which meets basic scientific principles
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-1
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN EN 933-10
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 66145
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Laser granulometer used.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
No.:
#1
Size:
<= 0.664 µm
Distribution:
1 %
No.:
#2
Size:
<= 4 µm
Distribution:
11.2 %
No.:
#3
Size:
<= 10 µm
Distribution:
22.9 %
No.:
#4
Size:
<= 14.069 µm
Distribution:
30 %
No.:
#5
Size:
<= 19.583 µm
Distribution:
40 %
No.:
#6
Size:
<= 25.308 µm
Distribution:
50 %
No.:
#7
Size:
<= 42.232 µm
Distribution:
70 %
No.:
#8
Size:
<= 60.143 µm
Distribution:
80 %
No.:
#9
Size:
<= 90.356 µm
Distribution:
90 %
No.:
#10
Size:
<= 284.839 µm
Distribution:
100 %

Fly ashes from the hard coal are dust with a particle size distribution in the area of coarse clay and fine sand.

Description of key information

Boiler slag: typical 0.25-11 mm; 10% < 2 mm, 
Bottom ash: typical 0.063-2 mm; 10% < 0.25 mm
Diverse fly ashes: D10 = 1.78- 5.9 µm; D50 = 11.79 - 44.29 µm; D90 = 22.61 - 135.66 µm; D100 = 103 - 294 µm; PM4 =11.7 – 103.7 mg/kg; PM 100 = 631 – 2936 mg/kg; MMAD = 11.64 µm

Additional information

The particle size distribution depends on the type of the residue. The coarsest fraction of the substance is boiler slag. Typical grain size is between 0.25 mm to 11 mm (50% of slag is <7 mm, 10% is < 2mm; VGB, 2010). The finer fraction is bottom ash with typical grain size 0.063 mm to 2 mm (ca. 50% of bottom ash is <2.5 mm, 10% is <0.25mm; VGB, 2010). All available studies (CEZ, 2008; IGF, 2002; VGB, 2010) report similar granulometry of fly ashes, which are little dependent of the type of coal (hard coal or lignite). According to these studies approximately 10% of fly ashes are of the particle size <5.9 µm (D10=1.78 -5.9µm for diverse fly ashes) and 50% of lower than 28µm (D50=11.79 -27.8µm for diverse fly ashes).

The median content of inhalable fraction (<100µm; according to DIN EN 481) is in the range of 631 to 2936 mg/kg and the median content of respirable (alveolar) fraction (<4µm; according to DIN EN 481) is in the range of 11.7 to 103.7 mg/kg according to IGF study (IGF, 2002) performed on 8 fly ashes from hard coal and lignite combustion.