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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Ashes (residues), coal  are not harmful to aquatic invertebrates.

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The short-term toxicity of different ashes (residues), coal to the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was assessed by several studies. None of these studies revealed a toxic effect of the tested ash to Daphnia magna. In limit tests according to OECD TG 202 water accommodate fractions (WAFs) of fly ash and slag were prepared. The toxicity of the soluble fractions of the ashes (residues), coal contained in the WAFs were assessed by observations on the mobility of Daphnia magna. After a testing period of 48 hours no EL50 could be determined up to the loading rate of 100 mg/L (Nachtigallová, 2009; Rejkova, 2009). Another study according to OECD TG 202 conducted by van Eijk (2008) tested the toxicity of different ashes (residues), coal - fly and bottom ashes resulting from 100 % coal firing and co-combustion. WAFs were prepared in a liquid to solid ration of 10 L/kg which corresponds to a test substance concentration thousand-fold higher than required for a limit test. The most critical LC50 of 22% was determined for ashes (residues), coal - fly ash. As 100 % eluate refers to a loading rate of 100 g/L, thus this result corresponds to approximately 22000 mg/L. Studies on leachates obtained by dilution of 100 g ash in 1 L of distilled water showed also no harmful effects on Daphnia magna up to concentrations greater than 100 mg/L (Vazelle, 1993; Pons and Leduc-Brunet, 1999). A 7-day test to assess mortality in Cerio daphnia from EDF (1999) shows also no toxicity effects of leachates from ashes (residues), coal - fly ash and support that ashes (residues), coal have no toxic effects on aquatic invertebrates.