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Environmental fate & pathways

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The following information is taken into account for any environmental exposure assessment:

Based on the the literature overview and the discussion above on BCF/BAF, the following bioaccumulation/bioconcentration factors have been derived and further used for Pb:    

- Aquatic compartment

Bioaccumulation/bioconcentration factors in freshwater: 1,553 L/kg (wet weight)

- Soil compartment

The biota-to-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) for earthworms in soil is dependent on the effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) of the soil:

log BSAF (kgdw/kgdw) = -0.89 * log eCEC (cmolc/kg) +0.55

For comparison with the PNECoral for birds and mammals, this BSAF must be expressed on a fresh weight basis. The conversion of dry weight to fresh weight is based on an average dry matter of 16% in earthworms (Jager 1998):

BSAF (kgdw/kgdw) = 0.16 * BSAF (kgdw/kgdw)

A generic BSAF factor of 0.048 (fresh weight) is derived for a soil with a median eCEC of 16 cmolc/kg soil. Fresh-weight based BSAF values for a soil with an eCEC of 8 and 30 cmolc/kg soil, corresponding to the 10thand 90thpercentile of eCEC in European arable soils are 0.089 and 0.028, respectively.