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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study not according to standardised protocol, but good quality and considered usefull for EU risk assessment zinc (ECB 2008). water conditions well described and relevant for EU freshwater

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
effects of water hardness and humic acid on zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna Straus
Author:
Palauskis J.D. and Winner R.W.
Year:
1988
Bibliographic source:
Aquatic Toxicologhy 12,273-290

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
chronic tests were performed for an extended time period (50 days). test solutions contained varying levels of hardness and DOC. organisms were adapted to different hardnesses. reproduction was evaluated as in the standard Daphnia magna test.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
zinc sulphate heptahydrate
IUPAC Name:
zinc sulphate heptahydrate
Details on test material:
Zn sulphate heptahydrate is highly soluble in water, it is used to test ecotoxicity of soluble zinc substances.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
solutions with different hardness and DOC were used

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
tests were initiated with <24 hrs old newborn dapnids

Study design

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
50 d

Test conditions

Hardness:
52 (as mg CaCO3/l)
102
197
Test temperature:
20+/- 1 °C
pH:
8.3-8.4

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
31 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 52, no DOC added
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
33 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 52, DOC 0.75mg/l
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 52, 1.5mg/l DOC
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
83 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 102, no DOC added
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
159 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 197, no DOC added
Duration:
50 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
208 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 197, DOC 1.5 mg/l added
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistics (p = 0.05)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Good quality study, considered useful for determining PNEC freshwater in zinc risk assessment (ECB 2008)
Executive summary:

Study into the effect of water hardness and humic acid on the toxicity of zinc to Daphnia magna. Tests not done according to standard protocol, but of good quality and considered useful for setting the PNEC freshwater. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of PNEC derivation. NOEC values: see “results” section.