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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

eye irritation, other
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
August 2002-December 2003
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented and corresponded to the requirements of the recommended Annex V Test Guidelines.
Justification for type of information:
Appropriate in vivo study was already available. No need to perform in vitro study.

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Lead monoxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Lead monoxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
lead monoxide
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Litharge-lead oxide
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Litharge Lead oxide
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): PbO
- Physical state: Fine yellow powder
- Analytical purity: 99.8%
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: PbO:99.8; metallic Pb:<0.01; Pb304:0.003; Cu:<0.0001: Fe: 0.0008
- Lot/batch No.: 210213
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: May 2005
- Storage condition of test material: At room temperature

Test animals / tissue source

New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
- Source: Harlan Winkelmann
- Age at study initiation:
- Weight at study initiation: 2.67, 3.00 and 3.84 kg
- Housing: Rabbits kept individually in a battery of cages with a cage size of 100 x 45 x 40 cm equipped with a paper disposal system.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Teklad Global Rabbit Diet (pelleted diet) offerred ad libitum. Batches of diet are analysed periodically for a wide range of contaminants by Harlan Teklad
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water as for human consumption was continuously available ad libitum via drinking nipples. Samples of drinking water are subjected periodically to bacteriological tests and to chemical analyses, including the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and arsenic.
- Acclimation period: animals have been housed at the testing facility for 27 days or several months

- Temperature (°C): 20 degrees C +/- 3
- Humidity (%): 30-70%
- Air changes (per hr): 16 times/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12/12 with light on at 7:00 AM


Test system

unchanged (no vehicle)
The untreated left eye served as the control
yes, concurrent no treatment
Amount / concentration applied:
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 0.1g
- Concentration (if solution):

- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit):
- Concentration (if solution):
- Lot/batch no. (if required):
- Purity:
Duration of treatment / exposure:
72 hours
Observation period (in vivo):
72 hours
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3 rabbits
Details on study design:
Three male rabbits used in the test were acclimatised to laboratory conditions for 27 days or several months. Twenty four hours before treatment, the eyes of all animals were examined for potential ocular lesions. Since the animals did not show ocular abnormalities, they were allocated to the test.The solid article was used as supplied by the Sponsor. One of the animals (rabbit no.1) was treated in advance in order to assess ocular reactions to the test article. The animal was treated with 0.1g of the solid test article, which was introduced into the conjunctival sac of the right eye after gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. The lid was then gently held together for about 1 second in order to limit loss of the test article. The untreated left eye served as the control. Since there was no remarkable response to the instillation of the test article within a few days, the further two animals were treated subsequently in the same manner.

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Slight redness (grade 1) of the conjunctiva occurred in animal no.1 at 1 h after instillation and disappeared subsequently. No ocular findings were seen between 24 h after instillation and the end of observation 72 h after instillation. The mean grades of erythema at 24, 48 and 72 h after instillation were "0" in all animals.
Other effects:
No general toxic effects were observed.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Lead oxide is a non-irritant.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified under EU (CLP) criteria. However, a conclusion cannot be made on GHS criteria.
The test substance was classified according to the EEC Directive 2001/59/EEC of 6 August 2001 and the Gefahrstoffverordnung (GEfStoffV) of 15 November 1999 (BGB1, p.2233). When administered to the eye, the test substance is classified as "non-irritant."
Executive summary:

The purpose of this study was to assess irritant and/or corrosive effects of LITHARGE lead oxide on eyes and associated mucous membranes following ocular administration to rabbits. Information derived from this test serves to indicate the existence of possible hazards likely to arise from exposure of the eye to the test substance.

The potential toxicity of LITHARGE lead oxide was assessed in an acute eye irritation/corrosion test on 3 albino rabbits. In each animal, 0.1g of the test article was introduced into the conjunctival sac of the right eye, the untreated left eye served as control. Both eyes were examined at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours post applicationem. The following results were obtained:

Between 24 and 72 hours after instillation no ocular findings were seen. The only finding was slight redness of the conjunctivae in one animal 1 h after instillation.

No general toxic effects were observed.

The mean grades of ocular reactions 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation were "0" in each animal.

The test substance was classsified according to the EEC directive 2001/59/ECC of 6 August 2001 and the Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV) of 15 November 1999 (BGB1. I, p. 2233). When administered to the eye, the test substance LITHARGE lead oxide may therefore be classified as "non-irritant."