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EC number: 931-250-7
CAS number: -
Animal studies demonstrate that kerosine was found to be irritating to rabbit skin (similar to OECD 404). The degree of irritancy is substance-, dose- exposure-time and methodology dependent. Based on weight of evidence kerosines are considered irritating.
Kerosine was found to be non-irritating to rabbit eyes when exposed to 0.1 mL of test substance (OECD 405).
demonstrate that kerosine may act as a skin irritant. The degree of
irritancy is substance-, dose- and exposure-time dependent. The
kerosines and jet fuels range from essentially non-irritating after 4
hours of semi-occlusive exposure to severely irritating after 24 hours
of occluded exposure. Symptoms vary strongly and range from very faint
erythema to severe irritation in humans and from epidermal changes (e.
g., hyperkeratosis) to necrosis and ulceration of the epidermis in
animals. The mechanisms of the irritation and the following inflammatory
reaction have been studied in further detail, showing that fuel may
induce the production and release of proinflammatory factors such as
considered irritating to the skin, but are not considered eye irritants.
In the key study
(ARCO, 1986d), young adult rabbits (6 females) were dermally exposed
(occlusive coverage) to 0.5 mL of undiluted kerosine/heating oil for 24
hours on both intact and abraded skin sites. Each
of the test sites was evaluated for skin responses for 9 days
post-exposure, and was scored using the Draize scale. The mean erythema
score from 24 to 72 hours was 3.46/4 while the mean edema score from 24
to 72 hours was 2.33/4. While
this protocol deviates from current guidelines that state exposure
should be semi-occlusive over 4 hours, and to intact skin only, this
study is included as key to show the irritating nature of kerosine
guideline study conducted according to GLP and in accordance with
current guidelines (Shell, 1991a), young adult New Zealand White rabbits
(3 per sex) were dermally exposed (semi-occlusive coverage) to 0.5 mL of
undiluted odourless kerosine, for 4 hours. Animals were observed for
seven days after exposure. Irritation
was scored based on the Draize method (1959). The mean erythema score
from 24 to 72 hours was 0.17/4 while the mean edema score from 24 to 72
hours was 0/4.
studies are provided on kerosines. Most
of the studies are valid in their methodology, but they differ from the
current OECD guidelines in that animals were exposed under occluded
conditions for 24 hours instead of semi-occluded conditions for 4 hours. Considering
the conditions of the test, results must be interpreted carefully for
the purposes of classification and labelling. The
mean scores for erythema and edema have been assessed against the
deviations, and provided the test would be conducted under standard
conditions, the overall weight of evidence indicates that kerosines are
irritating to skin. Kerosines
are classified as irritating to the skin according to criteria in EU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
A number of
well-controlled (GLP) animal experiments performed on kerosines indicate
that none were more than slightly irritating to the eyes. In addition, a
number of short reports on eye irritation studies on JP-5 and JP-8 show
no eye irritation whatsoever in rabbits (6 unwashed eyes; 3 washed
eyes): all scores 0.0 for up to 7 days (end of the study).
In the key study
selected for primary eye irritation, 0.1mL of undiluted kerosine was
instilled into the conjunctival sac of the right eye of three female
young adult New Zealand White rabbits, and observed through 72 hours.
Irritation was scored according to the Draize method (1959). There was
no evidence of damage to the cornea or iris for all animals over all
scoring periods. Mild conjunctivae indicators such as redness, chemosis,
and discharge were evident at the one hour scoring interval, but not at
any of the other scoring intervals. Fluorescein staining scores were
zero for all study animals over all scoring periods.
The average irritation
score was 0.0 for the cornea, iris and conjunctivae.
Based on the evidence,
kerosine is not an eye irritant.
supporting studies, rabbits were exposed to kerosines and observed for
irritation. The studies did not result in irritation according to the
mean cornea, iris or conjunctivae scores.
Justification for selection of skin irritation / corrosion endpoint:
One of 11 studies showing similar results
Justification for selection of eye irritation endpoint:
One of 10 studies showing similar results
Effects on skin irritation/corrosion: irritating
on the overall
weight of evidence of skin irritation scores, kerosines are classified
as irritating to the skin as defined
by EU CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008). They
are classified as Skin Irritant Category 2 (H315), irritating to the
on a lack of corneal, iridial, and conjunctival irritation, kerosines do
not meet the criteria for classification as an eye irritant as defined
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
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