Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (freshwater)
PNEC value:
0 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor
PNEC freshwater (intermittent releases):
0.224 mg/L

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (marine water)
PNEC value:
0 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC STP
PNEC value:
1.3 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (freshwater)
PNEC value:
1.85 mg/kg sediment dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (marine water)
PNEC value:
1.85 mg/kg sediment dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC soil
PNEC value:
0.67 mg/kg soil dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC oral
PNEC value:
4.3 mg/kg food
Assessment factor:
90

Additional information

Anthracene oil < 50 ppm BaP (AOL) is a UVCB and consists of a complex and within limits variable combination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The substance is obtained by distillation from coal tar extracting the approximate distillation range from ca. 300°C to 400°C. Up to 95% of the total product distil over between 300 and 375°C. This distillation interval largely excludes low molecular aromatic hydrocarbons (1 and 2-ring aromatics) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of more than 4 to 5 rings depending on the respective boiling points of the individual aromatic substances.

Naphthalene, the dominant representative of the two ring aromatics, is present in anthracene oil < 50 ppm BaP, at a concentration of about 2%. Pyrene represents the PAH with the highest molecular weight in substantial amounts of approx. 3%. Other components of AOL fall within the molecular size range of these two substances.

Main component is phenanthrene (25% - 31%, mean 28%). Other PAH are present in lower amounts, the majority of < 8%. The accumulated percentage of all substances that can analytically be identified is 70% to 80% (average ca. 75%) depending on individual anthracene oil samples and analytical method used.

Due to its poor solubility in water, short-term aquatic toxicity tests were performed using water-accommodated fractions. AOL as such or other closely structure-related tar oils used as surrogates did only exhibit low acute aquatic toxicity under standard test conditions in fish, daphnia and algae. But main AOL component phenanthrene was demonstrated to show considerable long-term toxicity to a broad range of water, sediment, and terrestrial organisms (see preceding sections).

Amongst the PAH present in AOL, the main component phenanthrene is considered to adequately represent the PAH related environmental toxicity of AOL. It is the most abundant component in AOL. Therefore, phenanthrene is selected as marker substance to represent the environmental toxicity of AOL.

Environmental risk assessment is based on predicted no effect levels (PNECs) derived for the substance under consideration. As phenanthrene is established as marker substance for AOL, PNECs are deduced employing environmental toxicity data of phenanthrene. Subsequently, the PNECs derived for phenanthrene are adjusted to AOL taking into account the percentage of phenanthrene (average 28%) in AOL and all identifiable substances (75%). In practice, the PNEC for phenanthrene is converted to a PNEC for AOL by multiplication of the phenanthrene-specific PNEC by a factor of 0.37 (28/75).

Basic PNECs are derived according to ECHA guidance documents.

Conclusion on classification