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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study (OECD draft)

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1991
Report Date:
1991

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD 202, 21d reproduction (ancestral guideline of 211)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
GLP compliance:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): phenanthrene
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): C14H10
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 178
- Substance type: organic
- Physical state: solid
- Source: Aldrich Chemie
- Analytical purity: >98 %
- Typical concentration in anthracene oil (<50 ppm BaP): 25 - 31 % (R4CC, GC analysis)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (data from NL 2008: Coal-Tar Pitch, Annex-XV dossier, and WHO 1998: EHC 202, if not otherwise indicated)
- Vapour pressure: 1.6 - 2.6*10^-2 Pa (at 25 °C)
- Water solubility: in freshwater, approx. 970 - 1290 µg/L (20 - 25 °C)
- Henry's law constant: 3.7 Pa*m3/mol (at 25 °C)
- log Pow: = 4.6
- pKa: not applicable
- Stability in water: limited due to photolytic decomposition and evaporation
- Stability in light: instable in the presence of UV
- pH dependance on stability: not applicable

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
sampling on day 0, 6, and 13

Test solutions

Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Organic stock solution in TBA: primary stocks with 2140 and 3760 mg phenanthrene/L, serving for secondary stocks for dosing
- Eluate: no
- Differential loading: no
- Controls: with solvent, 84.2 µL TBA/L dilution water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent): tert. butyl alcohol (TBA)
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium: 84.2 µL TBA/L dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): no

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: in-house culture (standard conditions acc. to Netherland´s Practice guidance NPR 6503)
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: Chlorella pyrenoidosa + yeast
- Amount: 0.3 *10^9 algae + 6 mg yeast
- Frequency: every 60 min

Study design

Test type:
other: intermittent flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21

Test conditions

Hardness:
217 mg/L (as CaCO3)
Test temperature:
20 +- 1°C (19.6 - 20.0°C, 1st day 22.3 °C)
pH:
7.8 - 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
>= 7.5 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 18, 32, 56, 100, 180, and 320 µg/L
analytical means (n = 3): 18, 31, 66, 139, 255, and 373 µg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 2.4L test chamber containing 4 cylindrical retention chambers
with the daphniae, each 250 mL volume
- Aeration: no
- Type of flow-through: intermittent
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): every 60 min, renewal of 1 L/h dilution water plus TS dosed from a stock solution.
Water change: about 40 %/h ( 1 L/2.4 L per 1 hour)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 4


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: groundwater supplemented with minerals
- Total organic carbon: 1.7 mg/L
- Ca/Mg ratio: approx. 2:1

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16 light / 8 dark (yellow light)
- Light intensity: no data


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): mortality, swimming behavior, size, reproduction


VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes


Reference substance (positive control):
not specified

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
18 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
31 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
66 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: note: nominal 56 µg/L
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
139 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: note: nominal 100 µg/L
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: in controls 3/40 and 5/40 (7.5 and 12.5 %), respectively;
in test groups dose-related, 4/40 (10 %) at the NOEC, 25/40 (62.5 % ) at the LOEC
- No. of offspring produced per 21 days per female: in controls 161 and 149, resp.;
in test groups dose-related decrease, 140 at the NOEC and 100 at the LOEC
- No. of broods: 5/21 d in controls and tests
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: day 8 in controls and tests
- Brood size: mean 22 - 52 neonates per female and occasion up to the NOEC of 18 µg/L (except day 8)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes