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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Studies on the effect of soil aging on the toxicity of pyrene and phenanthrene to a soil-dwelling springtail
Author:
Sverdrup LE, Jensen J, Krogh PH, Stenersen
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
Environ Toxicol Chem 21: 489-492

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
ISO 11267 (Inhibition of Reproduction of Collembola by Soil Pollutants)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
soil

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Name of test material: Phenanthrene
Source: Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO
Purity: > 96 %
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
- Vapour pressure: ~ 0.016 Pa (25 °C)
- Water solubility (under test conditions): ~ 1.3 mg/L (25 °C)
- log Pow: 4.5 - 4.6

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: samples of 50 and 200 mg/kg soil (dw) (fresh spiked soil), samples of 25 and 400 mg/kg (10-d aged soil),
samples of 100 and 400 mg/kg (40- and 120-d aged soil) at the start of exposure period

Test substrate

Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Acetone (4ml) with test substance was added to each container and mixed thoroughly into soil (26g dw soil/ container).
Vehicle control samples: acetone (4ml) without test substance was applied.
Evaporation of acetone (fume hood, 24h) before use.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Folsomia fimetaria
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Permanently cultured at the Danish National Environmental Institute (Silkeborg, Denmark)
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 23-26 d
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): no data

Mass-bred in Petri dishes containing dampened charcoal/ plaster of Paris mixture;
cultivated at 20 +/- 1°C, 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod
Food: Baker's yeast

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
no data

Test conditions

Test temperature:
20 +/- 1°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
6.2
Humidity:
50% of water holding capacity; watering during storage (aging time) and exposure period if neccessary
Photoperiod and lighting:
- Photoperiod: 12:12 h (light:dark)
- Light intensity: 400-800 lux
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Toxicity tests were conducted with freshly spiked soil and spiked soil samples aged for 10, 40, and 120 d.

- Test container (material, size): Plastic cylinder (5.5 cm high, 6 cm diameter) with 1-mm mesh in the bottom; during incubation closed at top and
bottom with lids
- Amount of soil or substrate: 26g +/- 0.05g artificial soil
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10 males, 10 females
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per vehicle control: 4

Artificial soil test substrate: Danish agricultural soil (Askov, Jutland); dried at 80°C for 24 h
- Composition: Sandy loam
Coarse sand (0.2 – 2 mm) 38.4 %,
fine sand (0.063 – 0.2 mm) 23.6 %,
coarse silt (0.02 – 0.063 mm) 10.0 %,
fine silt (0.002 – 0.02 mm) 12.3 %,
clay (<0.002 mm) 13 %,
humus 2.8 %,
Organic carbon content: 1.6 %

Soil pH 6.2, no adjustment
Density 1.135 g/cm3 (dry soil),
Cation exchange capacity 8.14 meq/100 g
Samples were sieved through a 2 mm mesh before use

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12/12 h (light/dark)
- Light intensity: 400-800 lux
- Opening of test containers after 7 and 14 d for feeding and addition of water (if necessary)
- Aging of test substance containing soil prior to test: 0, 10, 40, and 120 d (storage conditions during aging same as test conditions)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality, reproduction at end of exposure time (21 d)

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes (details see above)

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg soil (dw)
Recovery of concentrations at analyzed levels after aging (see above: details on sampling):
0 d: ca. 75-95%, 10 d: ca. 65%, 40 d: ca. 50 %, 120 d: ca. 10% (Values are taken from figure 1 in a rough estimate.)
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
23 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure in fresh spiked soil)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 9.1-38 mg/kg soil (dw)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 10 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 12-16 mg/kg soil (dw)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 40 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 0-19 mg/kg soil (dw)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 120 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 4.3-15 mg/kg soil (dw)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
29 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure in fresh spiked soil)
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated to soil with 2% TOC
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
18 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 10 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated to soil with 2% TOC
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
18 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 40 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated to soil with 2% TOC
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
12 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
(exposure 120 d after spiking)
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated to soil with 2% TOC
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
18 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated to soil with 2% TOC (geometric mean of recalculated values)
Details on results:
Four EC10 values for Folsomia in sandy loam soil are available. The difference between the four values is the ageing of phenanthrene in the soil. Soils were spiked and toxicity testing started after 0, 10, 40, or 120 days after spiking. The EC10s for these cases were 29, 18, 18, and 12 mg/kgdwt, recalculated to a soil with 2% organic carbon. The EC10s are based on measured concentrations. The geometric mean of these EC10s is 18 mg/kgdwt. This value is based on measured concentrations
[according to EU 2008: Risk Assessment Report on Coal-tar pitch]
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC10 values (reproduction): estimated by logistic regression by SAS/ Insight Release 6.12
LC50 values (mortality): estimated using probit analysis in SAS/Insight Release 6.12

Applicant's summary and conclusion