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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
GLP compliance:
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): D & C Red No. 7
Oxygen conditions:
Inoculum or test system:
mixture of sewage, soil and natural water
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge: in March, June, September, and December, sludge was sampled at the following 10 places in Japan:
1. Fukogawa city sewage plant
2. Fukashiba industry sewage plant
3. Nakahama city sewage plant
4. Ochiai city sewage plant
5. Kitakami river
6. Shinano river
7. Yoshino river
8. Lake Biwa
9. Hiroshima bay
10. Dookai bay; sampling:

1. City sewage: returned sludge from sewage plants was taken.
2. Rivers, lake and sea: surface water and surface soil which were in contact with atmosphere were collected.

- Method of cultivation: about 30 minutes after ceasing aeration to the sludge mixture, supernatant corresponding to about 1/3 of the whole volume was removed. Then the equal volume of dechlorinated water was added to the remaining portion and aerated again, followed by addition of synthetic sewage at a concentration of 0.1% (w/v). This procedure was repeated once every day. The culturing was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C. 5 L of the filtrate of the supernatant of old activated sludge was mixed with 500 mL of the filtrate of the supernatant of new sludge and cultured at pH 7.0 ± 1.0 under sufficient aeration using prefiltered open air. During the cultivation, appearance of the supernatant, precipitability, formation of flock, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution and temperature were checked and necessary adjustments were made, Microflora in the activated sludge was microscopically observed and sludge with no abnormal symptom was used for the test.
- Concentration of sludge: 30 mg/L
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
- Composition of medium: 3 mL each of four stock solutions, as described in JIS K 0102-1986-21, are diluted to 1000 mL with purified water
- pH: 7.0
- pH adjusted: yes
- Suspended solids concentration: determined according to Method Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 0102-1986-14.1

- Culturing apparatus: Closed system oxygen consumption measuring apparatus (Coulometer: Ohkura Electric Co., Ltd.); 300 mL vessel, absorbent for evolving carbon dioxide Soda lime No .l (extra pure reagent, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.).
- Number of culture flasks/concentration: 1
- Measuring equipment: Coulometer, Okhura Electric Co., Ltd.
- Test performed in open system: no
- Details of trap for CO2 and volatile organics if used: soda lime, extra pure, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.)

- Inoculum blank: yes
- Abiotic sterile control: yes
- Toxicity control: no
Reference substance:
Key result
% degradation (O2 consumption)
>= 9 - <= 12
Sampling time:
28 d
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable

Description of key information

Poorly biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

The biodegradability of the substance was tested in a study performed according to OECD guideline 301C. The substance was inoculated with a mixture of sewage, soil and natural water and the O2 consumption during 28 days inoculation time was recorded. Overall the substance was degraded by 9 -12 % after 28 days (JETOC, 1992)