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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

No study with chlorine is available. Read-across to sodium hypochlorite was performed instead. For justification see IUCLID5 section 6.1 or CSR section 7.1.1. 
In this avian repeated dose toxicity study with Japanese quails the NOEL was determined to be 200 mg chlorine/L. The LOEL was 400 mg chlorine/L based on smaller but functional testes.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
200 mg/kg food

Additional information

Read-across from sodium hypochlorite (justification see IUCLID5 section 6.1 or CSR section 7.1.1):

Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200 and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and haematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at higher concentrations is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant.

Further on, acute oral toxicity and 5 day dietary studies are available. The acute oral LD50 value for Bobwhite quails exposed to Sodium hypochlorite by single oral dose (gavage, vehicle: corn oil) was > 2510 mg a.s./kg bw. The no observed effect level was 1000 mg a.s/kg bw, whereas the lowest observed effect level was 1590 mg a.s./kg bw. In order to determine the dietary LC50 during an 8-day feeding test (5 days of treatment followed by 3 days of untreated diet) was performed with Mallard duck and Bobwhite quail. 5 geometrically arranged concentrations of Sodium hypochlorite were used. In each study 10 chicks were assigned randomly to the reference item (Dieldrin) and to each concentration level (1 replicate per treatment). The control contains of 5 pens and with 10 chicks each. Based on the results of the studies the short-term dietary LC50 for Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck was estimated to be greater than 5620 ppm (12.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite).