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mode of degradation in actual use
Type of information:
other: Pubblication
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Review of some articles on decolorization, degradation and transformation of Reactive Yellow 145

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
Biodecolorization screening of synthetic dyes by four white-rot fungi in a solid medium: possible role of siderophores
R.C. Minussi, S.G. de Moraes, G.M. Pastore and N. Duràn
Bibliographic source:
Letters in Applied Microbiology, 33, 21±25
Reference Type:
Decolourization of C.I. reactive yellow 145 by Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66
M. M. Sahasrabudhe and G. R. Pathade
Bibliographic source:
Archives of Applied Science Research, 3 (3):403-414
Reference Type:
Eco-Friendly Biodegradation Of Reactive Yellow 145 By Newly Isolated Bacillus Boroniphilus From Industrial Effluent
Derle Shilpa G., Patil Niranjan P., Gaikwad Vishwas B.
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Environmental Research And Development Vol. 7 No. 1A

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
No available information on methods used
Type of study / information:
Review of some methods and studies on decolorization, degradation and transformation of test item by different organisms, as fungi and microorganisms.

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Tetrasodium 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulphonate
EC Number:
EC Name:
Tetrasodium 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulphonate
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
tetrasodium 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulphonate

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Minussi (2001)

Four selected fungi were screened for their ability to decolourize a textile effuent  and commercial reactive dyes in a solid medium (Reactive Yellow 145). Ligninolytic enzymes activities (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) and siderophores presence were monitored in decolourized plates. The results showed low lignin peroxidase activity and no manganese peroxidase activity was detected for all fungi. Siderophores presence was observed in Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Lentinus edodes decolourized plates. Lentinus edodes displayed the greatest decolourization ability both in terms of extent and rapidity of decolourization.

Sahasrabudhe (2011)

Biological decolourization has been investigated as a method to transform, degrade or mineralize azo dyes. In the present studies bacteria from soil from dye waste area were subjected for acclimatization to the test item, an azo dye in the basal nutrient media. The most promising bacterial isolate was used for further dye degradation studies. The 16s r RNA gene sequencing revealed the isolated organism as Enterococcus faecaliss train YZ66. The strain showed complete decolourization of the selected dye (Reactive yellow 145- 50 mg/l) within 10 hours in static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolourization was 5.0 and 37 °C respectively. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, TLC and HPLC. Toxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegraded product. The results suggest that the isolated organism Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ 66 as a useful tool to treat waste water containing reactive dyes.

Shilpa (2012)

The study explores decolorization and biodegradation of azo dyes by bacteria as an eco-friendly approach. Isolated strain of Bacillus boroniphilus showed appreciable ability of decolorization of thest item and exhibited maximum decolorization in static condition of growth. Further, biodegradation of azo dye was analyzed by TLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR, results showed that –N=N- (azo bond) get converted into –NH2 (amino group), which proves accomplishment of biodegradation of reactive yellow 145. Moreover, phytotoxicity study revealed the less toxic nature of decolorized products as compared to original dye.  

Several organisms such as fungi, bacteria and fotochemical reactions have been studied for their capability to degrade, decolorize and transform in order to optimize treatment of waste water and textile waste soil and water containing the test substance. In Minussi et al., 2001, the ability of four white-rot fungi to decolorize four synthetic dyes and a textile effuent in a solid medium was evaluated. Reactive Yellow 145 was recalcitrant for T. villosa, but totally decolorized after 9 days of cultivation with P. chrysosporium and 10 days with L. edodes.Trametes versicolor started to decolorize after 10 days and showed around 30 % of colour removal after 25 days. The production of siderophores by the white-rot fungi was evaluated. The substance showed a CAS (% Of Chrome Azurol S) of 56 % for L. edodes, 42 % of P. chrysosporium. In a study of Sahasrabudhe et al., 2012, Reactive Yellow 145 was completely biodegraded by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66. It effectively decolourized under static condition various azo dyes, which are commonly used in the industries. Enhanced decolourization was observed in presence of peptone as an additional nitrogen andstarch as an additional carbon source. UV visible analysis, TLC, HPLC analysis of extracted products confirmed the biodegradation of test item. Maximum biodegradation was observed at pH 5 (97.44 %) and 40 °C. The decolourizing ability of the culture increased with increase in dye concentration from 50-400 mg/l. Shilpa et al. indicates that biodegradation of the test item by B. boroniphilusis mediated by different enzymes like Laccase, Azo-reductase,Tyrosinase, Lignin peroxidase. % of decolourization was increase in initial dye concentration (50-500 mg/l). In addition, decolorization in static condition was much higher than in the shaking condition. The microorganism showed 100 % of decolourization at pH 7, 30 °C and 0 % of NaCl. The activity was lower at dye concentration 500 mg/l.

The above mentioned studies indicate that degradation and decolourization can be augmented by common organisms.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The test substance can be metabolized, decolorated and transformated by several different microorganisms. The pH and temperature influence the optimal decolorization and the transformation process. All tests of biodegradation by selected bacteria and fungi showed the possible complete degradation of the item under different environmental conditions.
Executive summary:

Some different articles on transformation and decoloration methods of the dye in actual use were reported. The registering substance can be metabolized, decolorated and transformed by several different microorganisms and fungi . The pH and temperature influence the optimal decolorization and the transformation process.

All tests of biodegradation by selected bacteria show the possible complete degradation of the substance under different environmental conditions.